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told in later days by Gregory the Great, how the representatives of East and West: fought for the relics of the saints, is surely rather obscure. Of misprints we note Champillon (p. 51) for Champollion; and Pelusia (p. 471) for Pelusium.
In Memorials of the Savoy, the Palace, the Hospital, the Chapel, by the Rev. W.J. Loftie, B.A., F.S.A. (London: Macmillan & Co.), we have an admirable account of one of the most interesting spots in London. It was on February 12th, 1246, that Henry III. granted a certain piece of land “outside the walls of our city of London, in the street called the Strand,” to his " beloved uncle,” Peter of Savoy-who was in fact uncle of his wife, Eleanor of Provence; and from that day to this, that piece of land between the Thames and the Strand has borne the name of “the Savoy." The connection of the Savoy with the Duchy of Lancaster dates from 1351. It was probably in the garden of the Savoy that the Provence rose-the red rose of Lancaster-was first planted ; in the Savoy palace the unfortunate King John of France died; Henry VII. turned the the palace into a hospital ; in the early Stewart days the Masters of the hospital, being practically disendowed, turned an honest penny by letting chambers; worthy Thomas Fuller preached in the chapel; the Savoy Conference was held in the lodgings of Sheldon, bishop of London, who was then Master of the Savoy; Henry Killigrew enjoyed a jovial mastership there in the days of Charles II., and nearly ruined the foundation ; Thomas Wilson, the famous Bishop of Sodor and Man, was consecrated in the chapel in 1698 ; at length, in 1702, the hospital was dissolved by the energetic Lord Keeper Wright. The chapel continued to be used, and was made notorious in the middle of the last century by the resolute attempt of the minister to continue to perform marriages in defiance of the Marriage Act. In 1773 George III. issued a patent constituting the Savoy church a Chapel Royal, a status which it has ever since maintained. It will be seen from this sketch that the place has a history, and a history of this kind has rarely been better written than that of the Savoy by Mr. Loftie.
If ever there was a man who might be called a typical John Bull, that man is certainly Archdeacon Denison, whose Notes of my Life (Oxford and London: Parker & Co.) now lie before us in a third edition. He has all the vigour, honesty, pugnacity, and geniality, joined to a certain prejudice and obstinacy, which we are fond of attributing to ourselves as a nation. And it is to these qualities that he owes the popularity which he undoubtedly enjoys, both with those who praise and those who blame him. Englishmen like a man who " fights fair," and Archdeacon Denison is eminently a fair fighter, who bears no malice when the battle is over. It is pleasant to know of his friendly intercourse with his old opponent Mr. Ditcher in his latter days ; in fact, he never appears to have any personal dislike for his numerous opponents, unless it is for those whom he regards-rightly or wrongly-as dishonest. He reports his brother's saying, that he was
“ St. George without the dragon;" this is currently reported as “ without the drag on,” and from its close connection in the archdeacon's pages with "upsetting the coach,” we cannot help thinking that this is the authentic version. The archdeacon is an excellent illustration of the difference between an able man and a thoughtful man; of his ability there can be no doubt, but he is quite incapable of letting his mind “play freely” about any subject whatever ; he seems always to have had decided and unchanging opinions on every subject that was in his judgment worth thinking about at all; his life is the vigorous carrying out of his opinions with the most complete disregard for those of others. He finds it impossible to understand how any one can differ from him, but the views of those who do unfortunately differ he looks upon simply with good-natured contempt; he does not dislike them; he is sorry for them. It is evident that the whole bent of his mind is unscientific; we can quite believe his amusing story of his scientific performance in the examination for an Oriel Fellowship, in which he was successful notwithstanding; but an Oxford first-class-man and ex-fellow of Oriel ought certainly to know that yvãous does not mean “science” (p. 312). We have an odd specimen of the "twist” of his mind in what he says of the education question (p. 13). "There have been in the last 2000 years three principal instances of the formal repudiation by the Civil Power of the Trust, and of the Commission of the Church in the matter of education." These are --not a little to our surprise-in the Jewish Church, the case of Antiochus Epiphanes; in the Christian Church, the cases of Julian the Apostate, and of "the Imperial Government of England in Church and State, a.d. 1840—1870." The latter heinous offence consisted in the introduction of a “Conscience Clause,”-i.e., permitting the children, in schools partly supported by a
government grant, to absent themselves from the directly religious teaching. Whether the archdeacon would have preferred to have purely secular schools in every parish, which would be the natural alternative, does not appear. Now, what Julian did was simply this: he urged that it was intolerable for Christian men to earn money by teaching from the works of pagans, all of whom acknowledged a religion which Christians denounced, while many of them even claimed the inspiration of heathen deities. He laid no restraint upon Christian teaching, but he would not have Christian teachers in State schools, unless they agreed not to denounce pagan mythology. The parallel case would be, if a Christian Government were to order that no unbeliever should expound in schools either the Scriptures or works which assume the truth of the Christian revelation-a provision to which the archdeacon would probably not object. The passage which he quotes from the first book of Maccabees, describing the Jews' adoption of Gentile customs even in Jerusalem, has no conceivable bearing on the subject. It is odd that it did not occur to him that the state of the schools in France at ëhe end of the last century, or in North Germany at the present day, might be regarded as a good deal more subversive of the Gospel than the recognition of the rights of conscience in English schools where Christianity is taught. He is, as might be expected, a keen advocate for the teaching of Latin and Greek in schools, about which he has some sensible hints to give; and does not seem to remember that the leaders of the first French Revolution were ardent classicists.
In the Memorials from Journals and Letters of Samuel Clarke (London: Macmillan & Co.) we have a very interesting record of a man who, in his life, did much good work and exercised a very beneficial influence. Born of a respectable Quaker fainily he became a London bookseller and publisher, but was driven by the strong bias of his mind for theological studies to betake himself to Oxford and enter the ministry of the Church of England. It is to him that the letters are said to have been addressed by Mr. Maurice, which ultimately formed the treatise on the " Kingdom of Christ,” though we do not see this alluded to in the "Memorials.” The principal scene of his labours was the Training College at Battersea, where he had made himself loved and respected by his pupils in no common degree. The portions of letters and journals which his widow has selected for publication with admirable discretion show a mind active, earnest, cultivated, and bent upon higher hings.
The Ingoldsby Letters (London: Cassell, Petter & Galpin) are a collection of letters written during the last twenty years, principally in answer to various utterances of the bishops, by the Rev. James Hildyard, rector of Ingoldsby, on the subject of Liturgical Revision. This he advocates on two grounds, that the services require shortening, and that the Prayer-book as it stands is too favourable to Romish doctrine. The second is too large a subject to enter on here; as to the first, We must say frankly that the accumulation of Offices which until lately formed the almost invariable "Morning Service” is not the best imaginable to promote the devotion of a village, or perhaps of any, congregation. Now, however, that there exists practically the liberty of using the Communion Service, the Morning Prayer, and the Litany at separate times, of adopting the shortened form except for the two legal services on Sunday and on a few special occasions, we do not think that there is much occasion for complaint. Mr. Hildyard, however, does not think so, and continues his invective against long services even since the passing of the Act of Uniformity Amendment Act. He is a distinguished Cambridge scholar, and his letters everywhere show traces of the kind of culture which is more rare in these days than it formerly was by their wealth of classical quotation and allusion. It is impossible not to admire the unfailing vivacity with which he maintains a controversy which has occupied him from the vigour of middle age to the time of grey hairs.
II.-GEOGRAPHY, GEOLOGY, &c.
(Under the Direction of Professor T. G. Bonney, F.R.S.) INGLISH students of geology have long felt the want of a text-book of lithology,
superficially, and not seldom mislead the student by actual inaccuracies. It becomes evident to him before long that his teacher is uttering an uncertain sounů,
and in most cases he at last abandons the task in despair, and contents himself, when his own turn comes, with imparting to others ideas as hazy as he received. Thus in lithology, or the study of rocks, English students are generally distanced by their continental rivals, and the rising generation has had to look for help chiefly to Germany. This reproach has been removed by Mr. Rutley (The Study of Rocks: An Elementary Text-book of Petrology, by Frank Rutley, F.G.S. London: Longmans, 1879), who has smoothed the entrance into this difficult but fascinating, branch of geology, by placing a useful elementary text-book in the hands of the student. After two short chapters on methods of research and the origin of rocks, he passes on to treat of the principal structures developed in rock masses, of the effect of these on the scenery, and on the causes to which they are due. A brief notice of some physical topics comes next, and this is followed by some useful practical hints upon the method of collecting, apparatus, &c., especially as regards microscopic examination. On this topic the ordinary text-books of geology are almost silent, and even the so called new edition of Cotta on the Study of Rocks (noticed in the January No. of this REVIEW, p. 412) gives no information of any value. We find next a careful description of the principal rock-forming minerals, and finally some chapters describing and classifying the chief varieties of rocks, both igneous and sedimentary. The literature of the subject has evidently been very carefully studied by the author, who has consulted the best authorities, to whom, especially Professor Rosenbusch, he frequently refers the student for further information. Very fair woodcuts of some of the more characteristic mineral and rock structures are given, as well as some useful tabular groupings, showing the relations one to another of the igneous rocks.
Here indeed we could have wished that the author had not introduced metamorphic rocks into the table occupied by granite as a centre, and had not brought so prominently before the student the asserted transitions from granite to gneissic rock. In the present state of the controversy, and in the unsatisfactory state of the evidence in favour of the asserted passage of granite into gneiss, it is better, we think, to teach the student that granite has the same claims to be considered an igneous rock as diorite. Both the one and the other may represent the extreme stage of metamorphosis of sedimentary rock, but this remains to be proved. We are well aware that passages of granite into gneiss are asserted, as passages between other igneous and sedimentary rocks; but we venture to assert that no case of this has yet been established on satisfactory evidence, while many that have been instance d have broken down on examination. To bring therefore this idea of “metamorphosis” too prominently before the mind of the young student is to give him a bad start, and to encourage him to be careless when he should be most careful. The felsites, too, are rather imperfectly treated. We think also that the author would have done well to give rather more prominence to the olivine rocks, by separating them from the other felsparless rocks, and indicating more clearly the rocks which are in a com. paratively unchanged condition, and those which have been greatly altered.
Notwithstanding these points (which are to a great extent matters of opinion) we have no hesitation in heartily recommending Mr. Rutley's book to all who are struggling with the difficulties of lithology, and congratulating English students on having at last obtained a good text-book of the subject, written in their mother tongue.
Our next book (Etna: A History of the Mountain and of its Eruptions, by G. F. Rodwell
. London: C. K. Paul & Co., 1878), as stated in the preface, is an enlargement of an article on Etna contributed to the “Encyclopædia Britannica.” It is a careful compilation of the history of this subject, but, it may be in consequence of its origin, is less attractive in style than the well-known work on Vesuvius, by the late Professor Phillips. For this, however, the mountain itself may be partly to blame, for there is no episode in its history so full of varied interest as the destruction of Pompeii and the other horrors which marked the eruption of Vesuvius in A.D. 79.
The author commences with a brief sketch of the history of Etna from the first mention of it by Pindar, more than twenty-three centuries since, to the monographs which have appeared during the last few years. To this succeeds a sketch of the principal physical features of the mountain, its wide field of view-probably nearly 40,000 square miles-its numerous minor cones, its caverns, and the various regions or zones into which its surface is divided. The author here calls attention to the fact that more than 300,000 persons live on the slopes of Etna. This is the more remarkable seeing that only a few insignificant villages are within a distance of 91 miles from the cone. Notwithstanding this large central uninhabited space the population of the mountain is nearly double that of Bedfordshire, though the area is
only greater by 18 miles. An ascent of the mountain is then described, almost too briefly ; then there is a brief sketch of the towns situate on the plains of Etna, of the recorded eruptions, and of the geology and mineralogy of the mountain. The last subject is enriched by a note from Mr. F. Rutley on the microscopic structure of the lavas of Etna, which appear to be felspar basalts, containing olivine, and generally of a rather uniform composition. This is a judicious addition, for the last chapter strikes us as the least satisfactory in the book'; sundry indications suggesting that the author is not quite so familiar with geology as he is with other branches of physical science. For example, we find it rather difficult to attach a meaning to the phrase “a crater composed of a prehistoric grey labradorite and a doleritic lava" (p. 111), and are disposed to demur to the propriety of calling labradorite a lime felspar, seeing that anorthite has a better claim to the name. We are also mnch surprised to see mentioned, apparently with some degree of favour, the "elevation
crater theory of E. de Beaumont, which we had thought had never recovered the coup de grâce dealt to it by Lyell, and had for some time ceased to have more than a historic importance.
These little blemishes excepted, the book appears to be a very useful one, and we trust that when it reaches a second edition, the author will not only remove them, but also enlarge the account of his own observations of the mountain, and incorporate some additional interesting facts given in the well-known works of Lyell or Reclus, which we miss in his volume.
A Monography of the Silurian Fossils of the Girvan District in Ayrshire, by Prof. H. Alleyne Nicholson and R. Etheridge, jūn., F.G.S. Fasciculus I. W. Blackwood and Sons, 1878.-In this volume we have a very valuable contribution to the palæontology of the Silurian rocks of Scotland. The vicinity of Girvan, Ayrshire, has long been known as one of the more prolific localities for fossils in a country generally poor in organic remains; and the authors, aided by a share of the Government grant dispensed by the Royal Society, and by the liberality of Mr. and Mrs. R. Gray, have carefully described in this fasciculus the rhizopoda, actinozoa, and trilobita which have been discovered near Girvan.. The first contain some very interesting forms, among which we find the genus saccammina, a living arenaceous foraminifer of great antiquity, but not previously known to occur in rocks earlier than the Carboniferous period. A problematical fossil named Girvanella is also described, consisting of very minute wavy tubes. Girvanella is supposed to be rhizopod, and to preserve some resemblance of a species of Rhizammina obtained by the Challenger Expedition. The corals are in many respects remarkable. The Craighead limestone (a bed probably rather low in the Lower Silurian series) contains twelve species. Of the seven commoner forms, only one is known to occur elsewhere in Britain. One new species from another deposit, named by the author Cælostylis Lindströmi, is of special interest, and is the first-known instance of the discovery of an ancient type of perforate corals outside Sweden. A considerable number of trilobites are well and carefully described. The beds above named are the oldest which are fossiliferous, but another deposit probably does not greatly differ in age. Another is thought to be of Upper Llandovery, and a fourth and fifth are certainly Upper Silurian.
The work is excellently printed, and illustrated by nine plates. We heartily wish it success, and trust that the authors may be encouraged to continue their labours among this interesting group of rocks.
Coal : Its History and Uses, by Professors Green, Miall, Thorpe, Rücker, and Marshall. Edited by Professor Thorpe. London: Macmillan & Co., 1878.—The explanation of the very composite authorship of this volume is that the chapters of this book were delivered by the above professors of the Yorkshire College of Science as a series of lectures in connection with the Gilchrist Trust. It was thought that the educational value of the lectures would be increased by the selection of a common subject, and coal was a very obvious one to be chosen by the scientific men in the north of England. We have thus the history of coal related in a form at once attractive and scientific. Professor Green describes the geology of coal-its place in the series of the stratified rocks, the theories of its formation, and the physical geography of the surrounding districts at the time when the coal plants flourished in the marshes. Professor Miall gives an admirable sketch of the flora and of the fauna of the Carboniferous epoch. The editor discusses the chemistry of coal; and Professor Rücker considers coal as a source of warmth and power ; while the important " coal question"-how long will our supply last, and what then?” is the
subject of a thoughtful essay by Professor Marshall. The result has been that a quantity of very interesting and valuable material has been brought together, and a handy-book compiled on the subject, which is popularly and pleasantly written, yet nevertheless strictly scientific in its mode of treatment. Original matter is of course not to be expected, but we find here, within the compass of by no means a large volume, a quantity of most useful and interesting information, which had previously been scattered through many special treatises and original memoirs. The book appears to fill a gap, and in our scientific literature will be found of much value to more than one class of the community.
The Geology of the N.W. part of Essex and the N.E. part of Herts, with parts of Cambridgeshire and Suffolk ; Memoirs of the Geological Survey. Longmans & Co.This is one of the shorter memoirs explanatory of the various sheets of the geological survey map, that illustrated by the present book being No. 17 of the one-inch scale. The district is one the geology of which is not particularly interesting, though it offers a good many difficulties to the surveyors, and no doubt has caused them an amount of trouble quite disproportionate to the apparent results. These are clearly set forth in this volume, which, after a brief sketch of the Cretaceous beds, found in the district, describes with more detail the Eocene Tertiaries, a small area of Red Crag, and the Glacial and Post-glacial deposits. It also contains notes of many pit sections, which are of especial value, because these are so liable to be obliterated in the process of time.
In connection with the above we may call attention to an interesting essay on The Post-Tertiary Deposits of Cambridgeshire, by A. J. Jukes-Browne (Deighton & Co.). This little volume is the essay which obtained the Sedgwick Geological Prize for 1876. The author gives a careful and lucid description of these complicated deposits in the neighbourhood of Cambridge, and comes to the conclusion that the valley of the Cam and the hollow of the north fens are pre-glacial, while that of the south fens, between Ely, Newmarket, and Cambridge, is post-glacial, and that the valleys radiating from the chalk escarpment took their rise in early post-glacial times, when the drainage system differed much from the present.
The firstpart of Volume XXXV. of the Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society has appeared since our last series of notices, and contains several papers of exceptional interest. Among these is one by Dr. Dawson on the structure of that puzzling palæozoic fossil, Stromatopora, which he regards as a rhizopod, like Eozion; and another on the mineralization of certain palæozoic fossils with serpentine and other hydrous silicates, which has an obvious bearing on the controversy concerning the above organism. The author describes fossils of the Lower Silurian age which are infiltrated with certain serpentinous minerals, and notices some forms imitative of Eozion. The evidence, on the whole, tends to confirm the idea that Eozion is a true organism. Considerable additions are made to the coral fauna of the Upper Greensand from the well-known reef at Haldon, by Professor Duncan; and the relations of some dwarf mesozoic crocodiles with their associate mammals are discussed by Professor Owen, who points out that the former were suitably formed for the capture of the latter. Dr. Sheibner describes the rare rock Foyaite from the south of Portugal, which consists of orthoclase felspar, elæolite, and hornblende, with biotite, nosean, and sodalite. The Mica-traps of the North-west districts of England and the Huronian clay slates also receive notice; and there is a highly characteristic paper, by Mr.J.F. Campbell, on Glacial periods, in which he comes to the following conclusion: " My opinion is that the present is at least as cold as any period of which there is any geological record, and that it has endured ever since any part of the earth's surface was high enough and cold enough to be a condenser of snow. I hold that the record of sedimentary geology is continuous, and does not record periods of great cold."
(Under the Direction of Professor S. R. GARDINER.) MR: R. Justin M'Carthy's History of our Own Times (Chatto and Windos), of which
the first instalment, reaching to the close of the Crimean War, is now in our
hands, undoubtedly deserves the success which it has achieved. The subject is undeniably attractive, and Mr. M'Carthy has made it still more attractive by his