« הקודםהמשך »
1. By giving more time to the study of Christianity, Life of Christ and constructive books on religion and the Christian faith, so that we may have a better understanding of it for our own sake and for the sake of the New Church in China.
2. Visit typical, active churches in America, and study something of their organization and activities. Make personal friends of some pastors. The church in China, as well as that in America, will have to depend for much of its support upon its laymen. Study other forms of organized Christian effort, the city Y. M. C. A.'s, Boys' Clubs, the institutional church, mission work in the slums, orphanages and the like.
3. Share your studies and experience in these lines with fellow-students and try to enlist as many as possible to join you. For the strengthening of your own Christian life, forin a small group of Christian friends who shall help each other, discuss common problems and unite in some definite Christian service here.
4. Keep in touch, through “The Chinese Recorder," and other periodicals, English and Chinese, with religious movements and Christian progress in China.
5. Prepare, when you return, to share in constructive contributions to the development of the church in China. Original hymns with Chinese thought and music would be an addition to the worship. There is a great field for religious literature. Returned student leadership is choice, but comparatively little of it is found in the church in China today.
6. The new church demands a high grade of leadership and the call comes strong for men who will give their lives to entirely Christian service, the ministry, Y. M. C. A. work, social service, and be the prophets to serve and to guide.
7. Wherever you are when you return, throw your spirit and give of your time and support and service to the church nearest you. It may be a very weak little church. All the more will it need you, and in serving this little church, you will be aiding directly the whole Chinese Christian Church.
The China for Christ movement today calls us over here to join in its battle, to share its difficulties, to help to make its history, and to partake in its triumphs. Let us purpose today not to fail it.
TO-MORROW: WHAT WILL CHINA BE?
By Henry Why Yee In thinking about the future of China, we, as Chinese students, determine to do our share in helping her to be what she ought to be. This is an immense task. She has to provide an adequate educational system for her people, so as to teach them the meaning of a democratic government and the duties of the citizens of a republic; she has to develop her vast resources which are the foundations of her national wealth, so as to place herself upon a sound financial basis; and she has to raise the standard of morality among her people, particularly those who are holding responsible positions, so as to stamp out dishonesty and selfishness, which have during recent years done so much in retarding her progress. In short, she needs intellectual, industrial, and moral development.
In preparing ourselves for this great and difficult task, we, who are studying in America, must understand that book-learning alone is not all that is important; we must observe the industrial, social, and religious life of the people, if we want to get an adequate conception of the significance of Occidental civilization. After we return to our country we must be ready to make the best use of the opportunities we have had in education and training, to accept disappointments, rebuffs, and hardships, and above all to work for the good of China in a self-sacrificing spirit. It is only in this way that we can hope to do our share in determining the future of our country, that is to say, in helping her to be what we wish her to be.
THE PROGRESSIVE SPIRIT The progressive spirit is an essential factor in creating things worth while. Onward and upward it has been forever the dominating incentive to greater achievements.
The man who is satisfied with his everyday humdrum existence, who believes in “letting well enough alone" and who still plows with the proverbial forked stick, this man lacks the spirit leading to progress, and is therefore a “dead fish” foating with the current of satisfaction. On the other hand the "live fish” fights his way up stream until he reaches the source where there is always an abundance of clear fresh water. He is one of those that progress.
About a hundred years ago people became dissatisfied with their transportation facilities, and a man who was imbued with a progressive spirit, conceived the idea of a railroad, and as a result we have the modern express trains, demons of speed, rushing from one corner of a country to another.
The twentieth century ocean liner, which makes the transPacific voyage a matter of weeks instead of months was the achievement of a man not satisfied with the sail-boats then in use, who began fighting his way up the stream of satisfaction, and did not cease his efforts until the “Clermont” was plying the Hudson.
The world laughed when Thomas Edison said he had a machine that could talk but now the world pays tribute to that man who did not “let well enough alone.”
The ultimate object of a college education is to enlarge the creative faculty of the mind, and to make one capable of production as well as consumption. Higher education is for those who are big enough to be dissatisfied with their present attainments, and are desirous of going further and further into the great realm of knowledge. In other words it is for those who possess the progressive spirit.
The world is in a constant state of evolution of ideas and ideals, and needs only those who want to fight against stagnation and move forward improving the existing situation however satisfactory that may be. It needs men who wish to see progress.
A GLIMPSE OF THE CHINESE STAGE
By C. L. Chen Mr. Chen is now doing research work in dramatic literature at the
Graduate School of Cornell University.-Ed. While no complete history of the Chinese drama has yet been written, it is possible to trace its development from the Tang Dynasty down to the present time. Emperor Ming Hwang of that dynasty was a patron of plays in which originated representation of characters by human beings instead of puppets which had been employed hitherto.
The most famous plays were produced, however, in a later period, i. e., in the Yuan Dynasty. They have now been published in a set entitled “One Hundred Plays Written by Yuan Scholars,” being noted for their plots and language.
The earliest type of plays performed on the stage was called "Kao Chiang," consisting of quite a good deal of action accompanied by simple musical instruments. As time went on, it was gradually modified until it became known as Kun Chiang, which was certainly a great improvement as its language became literary in style-indeed so much so that the common people failed to appreciate its value and called it “Kun Chiang" meaning sleepy-and its music was now furnished by an elaborate orchestra consisting of a small drum, a gong, two cymbals, two flutes, a fiddle and a harp.
During the reign of Hsien Fung and Tung Chi of the Ching Dynasty appeared a play known as Suan Tong or Pi Hwang. Although it was a modification of Kun Chiang, yet the type of music employed was quite different from the former. For instance, in Kun Chiang the principal musical instrument was the flute, while in Pi Hwang it was the Hu Chin (“Hu” meaning Mongolian, and "Chin” harp.)
The first noted actor in Peking who could act and sing Pi Hwang was Cheng Chong. Though he died about forty years ago, his dramatic talent still lingers in the memory of many Peking people. His chief contemporaries were Chong Esh Kwei and Yu San Sheng, followed by three others—Sun, Wang, and Tan, all of whom have attempted to imitate Cheng on the Peking stage.
As none of these actors succeeded in imitating him, they gradually formed three separate schools. The Sun School is very difficult to imitate for Sun is gifted with a fine voice and can use it in any way he pleases—as tenor, as bass, in a prolonging tone, or in an abrupt stop. The difficulty of imitation also applies to the Wang school, as it is noted for its characteristic tone which is higher than the highest standard tone. For example, in Chinese music the lowest tone is "lu,” the next "kung," then "yi” and the highest “shang.” In his singing Wang's voice pours out as if from the depth of his being. Sometimes it may sound as though hoarse. But it is really as clear as moonlight shining through clouds, consequently it is called “a cloud shading the moon.” The third school, known as the Tan school, is not difficult to imitate, though very sweet and charming. In imitating Tan's tone the pitch of every word must be studied. For example, particular attention must be paid to every word in order to ascertain whether it is to be sung high or low. Otherwise the real quality of his tone may be missed and the imitator may be criticized as making a mistake similar to that of an artist who intending to paint a tiger paints a dog instead.
Tan is considered a great actor as well as a great singer, primarily because of his ability to represent personality and emotion. For instance, if he should represent a miserable person, he would act in such a way as to make his audience forget that it was all a play.
In the dramatic art there are two kinds of plays--namely, the civil and the military. In ancient days the actions and speeches of knights were quite different from those of civilians. So were their costumes. For this reason actors representing military personages should demonstrate the ability to fight in a tournament as well as the ability to sing. Actors who possess these two talents and can participate in both military and civil plays are exceedingly rare. Tan could, however, do both. Towards the end of the Ching Dynasty, Tan was greatly honored by the patronage of the Empress Dowager who was particularly fond of his performances. In his last years he seldom appeared on the stage though he occasionally acted in wealthy families,