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Elustrative Notices. Even Coleridge, the philosophical Coleridge, who wrote so near to the time of Robespierre as 1794, in his Historic Drama * The Fall of Robespierre,' gives this account of the death of the famous Tribune. What trust can be put in newspaper truth, when, so near the event as the time when Coleridge wrote, such a man could be so imposed upon? Lecointre is recounting the end of Robespierre :

The tyrants fled-
They reach'd the Hotel. We gather'd round-we call’d
For vengeance! Long time, obstinate in despair
With knives they hack'd around them. Till foreboding
The sentence of the law, the clamorous cry
Of joyful thousands hailing their destruction,
Each sought by suicide to escape the dread
Of death.

- The self-willid dictator
Plunged often the keen knife in his dark breast,
Yet impotent to die. He lives all mangled

By his own tremulous hand. Mr. G. R. Vine calls the following choice sentiments from an article entitled Four Years' Experience of the Catholic Religion,' in the paper mentioned as follows :-Next to a return to the true religion (Catholicism),' says a writer in the Rambler for July, 'I can conceive nothing so beneficial to the Anglo-Saxon race as an infusion of a spirit of light-hearted cheerfulness and a less keen susceptibility to the peculiar charms of modern civilisation.'......' Not only the genial influence of their religion as a spiritual system, but the nature of their belief in the excellence of poverty and the monastic and celibate life, and in the pernicious nature of excessive carefulness, and of a melancholy anxious spirit, tend to make them sit down, contented and comparatively carless about worldly success, when other men would strain every nerve to struggle against the assaults of fortune, and to provide against every possible future contingency. This is strange philosophy, but if it were generally practised I think we should have, not a nation of Diogeneses with tubs for habitations, but a world of lazy paupers. Further on the writer says, that the law of nature which tends to make some men rich and the other poor, tends to make the first richer and the second poorer every day that passes by. This remark is offered as a refutation of Socialism-but if we ask every individual who has wealth, the means he resorted to to obtain that wealth, we shall have a different statement to deal with from that given here.

G.R. V. Dr. Arnold made the remark—'I never wanted articles on religious subjects half so much as articles on common subjects, written with a decidedly Christian tone.' Dr. Arnold was too sincere a man to say this in the spirit of Jesuitry. He saw that the day of Doctrinalism was past with Christianity as with other things also : that men who would make any system acceptable in this epoch must prove its applicability to common subjects'-must, in fact, practicalise it.

The head master of Harrow School, Dr. Vaughan, in a volume of sermons just published, declares, so say the newspapers, that what he calls the pride of scepti. cism'is working its deadly work in the two Universities, to an extent to which 'those who have left them even for a few years can scarcely believe.'

The Shields Gazette states that a Primitive Wesleyan Chapel in that town is being converted into a beer-shop.

Tindal remarks, that 'Earnest men are never offended that others who differ from them the widest in opinion should be earnest; but they are offended that the earnestness of others should treat their earnestness as folly and guilt.'

The Bradford Observer states that Mr. Joseph Barker left Wortley on Monday evening, June 18, for Liverpool, to take his passage for New York in the packetship 'Hartford,' and that he intends returning to England in about five months.

G. J. H.

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THE UNCERTAIN RESULTS OF THE WAR oake's possession is for £8 148.7d. It would be a SYSTEM

great favour if any one subscribing ever so small a SIR,- Sir Robert Peel, at the Mansion House sum through our hands, and observing the slightest the other day, spoke of the 'glorious exertions and

variation in its acknowledgment, would apprise us inspiring example of the Duke of Wellington,' in

of it. In these matters, above all others, we are compliment of the advantages gained by the British

anxious to be scrupulously exact. standard floating over the walls of Paris ; and the independence of nations secured. The Times, of

INTIMATION Friday, June 29th, in its comments, says-—'We

To the Subscribers to the Roman Fund. are aware that the fruits of just and honourable The subscribers to the Fund for the sufferers in war do not pass away with its monuments, its the defence of Rome are invited to attend to-morrow captains, its final treaties and awards...... The (Thursday) evening, at 8 o'clock, at the Italian fortunes of ages may be cast in the die of one School, 5, Greville Street, Hatton Garden, to rehostile collision.'

ceive the accounts of the Committee, and to dispose Here, in allusion to the result of Waterloo, the of the balance remaining in hand, Times gives it as a public and most disinterested

Odoardo Villani, service, accomplished at a vast sacrifice of blood

Antonio Berni, and treasure, and which has tied an everlasting

J. B. Soldi. millstone round the neck of British industry, has been repaid with political insult, fiscal

THE WEEK'S LECTURES. prohibition, and commercial repudiation.' • In

'LITERARY & SCIENTIFIC INSTITUTION, John that capital,' it adds, 'to which the Duke marched from Torres Vedras, and where "the independence Hart will lecture.

Street, Fitzroy Square-Aug. 5, (7), Mr. Richard of nations was secured," there is now installed the

ECLECTIC INSTITUTE, 72, Newman Street, Or. heir of the dethroned Napoleon.' It continues- ford Street. - August 5, (8) J. B. O'Brien, B.A., * Revolution has long since severed the bulwark which the allies vainly thought to raise against tical Business of Life.'

"The Application of Scriptural Truths to the Prac. France by the union of Catholic Belgium with

South LONDON HALL, Webber Street, BlackProtestant Ho!land. The vast complicated machine

friars Road.-August 5, (8) Mr. T. Shorter, 'The of Austria is all out of gear. The combination

Life and Writings of Luther.' of territories which still calls itself Prussia just holds together, ready to fly asunder at the slightest Thomas Cooper will lecture.

HALL OF SCIENCE, City Road.-Aug. 6, (7+) excess of regal or popular domination. Germany is no longer, in any sense, one. Absolutism, also, has committed her infractions of the European

BOOKS ON FREE INQUIRY.

CR'S tations. It has extinguished the nationality of

Free Orthodoxy

3 Poland. We have apparently begun a period of

Infidel's Text Book

2 6 war. Thus the hero of Torres Vedras and of

Or in numbers at 2d. Waterloo has lived to see his work undone.'

The Scripturian's Creed

2 Thus the wisdom of our great and mighty men Doubts of Infidels.

0 3 has resulted in mistake, and all their doings, to Important Examination of the Holy Scripbe confessed, require doing over again. May we tures, M. de Voltaire not hope that better agencies will come into opera Mackintosh on the Being and Attributes of tion, to prove that mankind are capable of a God

08 higher scale in being than that which the brutal Cooper's Connection between Geology and system of war creates ?

the Pentateuch

09 Punch says, “The romance of one era is the Theology Displayed

09 reality of the next. The Arbitration Question has Protestant's Progress from Church of taken root, and will grow and spread.'

Englandism to Infidelity

1 Gravesend, July 2nd. R. H. The Three Impostors

0 Palmer's Principles of Nature

6 ROMAN SUBSCRIPTIONS. Haslam's Letters to the Clergy

2 6 H. Is., James Spurr, Liverpool, 6d., Willis

Letters to the Bishop of Exeter .. 2 6 Knowles, Hyde, ls.

London : J. Watson, 3, Queen's Head Passage, Per J. Watson.-Mr. Parrott 2s.6d., Mr. Medley Paternoster Row. Is. Per E. Truelove.-J. Patterson 1s., Mr. Powell

INTIMATIONS. 1s., Arthur 6d., G. Gall 6d., John Craig 6d., Mr. The Reasoner is sent free by Post, the Quarter's Collinson sd., John Grant 6d.

Subscription 48. 4d., on thin paper 38. 3d., Per H. Hetherington. — Mr. Stubbs, Camden and issued in Monthly Parts and Half-yearly Town, 28. 6d., A Friend 18., J. Pearson 1s. 2d., J. Volumes. Sculthorp 1s., c. Holmes Is., J. Pearson 8d., c. Marriott 6d., G. Burrows 6d., A Sacrifice to the

RECEIVED.-Alexander Brown. (The works were holy cause of Italian Democracy 6d.

forwarded, save the one by Aliquis, which please Per Mr.Newton.--Mr. Mackie 3s. 6d., R. Nen ton specify.)-G. R. V. (We shall use a quotation 28., W. Noel 1s., H. Noel is., Mr. Nightingale 18.,

from his paper.)-D.M. (Rome shall be Frec,' Mr. Cook 18., A Friend 15., Mr. Taylor 1s. 6d.,

quoted in the Birmingham Mercury from the Mr. Stevens Is., Mr. Heather 1s.

Standard of Freedom, originally appeared in the C. L. S. 28., Mr. Roast 18., A. Mason 6d., W. R.

Reasoner.) ---W.C. (Enclosures serviceable.)Cook 6d.

Spectatur, No. 1099.-R. Hall and Friends. ERRATA.-Upon examining the items acknow

(The reason assigned in the volume-script of ledged in the Reasoner, and comparing them with

Vol. VI. places the ground of change beyond

choice.)-The Subscriptions of a Family next private lists, an error appears. , On p. 411, No. 161,

week. Unit 28.' should be Unit 28. 6/4. But 28. 6d. were paid on behalf of `Unit' to the Treasurer, as Mr. London :- Printed by A. Holyoake, 54, Exmouth H.'s receipt shows. The 'Total of £8 149. 2d.,! Street, Clerkenwell, and Published by J.Watson, given on p. 383, No. 159, was less than tbat paid 3, Queen's Head Passage, Paternoster Row. over to the Treasurer. The receipt in Mr. Holy

Wednesday, August 1, 1849.

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No. 6.-New Series.] EDITED BY G. J. HOLYOAKE.

[PRICE 20.

INTERESTING FACTS RELATIVE TO THE DEFENCE

OF ROME.

In the very excellent letter of Douglas Jerrold in the Express of Wednesday, on the subject of a Mazzini Medal, it is stated that Mazzini was protected after the fall of Rome by a British passport. This is very generally supposed to have been the case in this country—but it was not so. It has been said that he was attached to the British embassay, to secure his safety in appearing in the streets of Rome—as he did on several occasions after the French entered—but this was not so. He had neither passport nor guarantee from any Court-he had no protection save that of his own courage and address, which has brought him beforetimes through equally imminent danger. He even left Rome without a passport. At a distant port he eluded the officers, who entered the vessel on one side as he left it on the other. He is, however, safe at Geneva.

Some events it would afford great pleasure to relate, of Mazzini's last thirty days in Rome, have come to our knowledge; but, being of a personal nature, though of public interest, we leave it to others—to his immediate friends—to record them.

The past week has afforded some opportunities of learning from unquestionable sources some interesting facts relative to the defence of | Rɔme. It appears that there were never more than 10,000 men under

arms in Rome, and that not more than 4000 of these were regular disciplined soldiers'; and yet, with this small force, did the Romans hold out so long against the besieging forces. The

great extent of wall to be defended by the Romans subjected the soldiers to great fatigue and protracted watching. The want of discipline in the greater part of the troops very much impaired their efficiency. About 4000 fell in defence. The French, including about 800 killed by malaria, lost about 6000.

Young. Manara, who fell in the struggle, is an illustration of the interest taken in Italian liberty by the best families of Rome. Manara was of such family. He was a young man he had a wife and three children, yet he was foremost in the fight. He was also immensely rich; and on the day on which he fell, he was supporting 700 out of his own resources. The case of Manara was not singular. Great elements out of which to mould the future greatness of Italy exists. The recent effort was national in the best sense. It not only included the best men, but the best families among its friends and aiders.

(No. 167, Vol. VII.)

General Aveyzana, who commanded at Genoa, and took part in the defence of Ancona and Rome, has lately been in London. The General is of noble aspect and large stature. His quiet unassuming manner is in keeping with the soldier of freedom. General Aveyzana has been thirty years an exile from his own land, during which time he has fought for the liberty of every nation he could reach, whose freedom has been endangered. Of late be held an American colonelcy. He had settled in that country, and has a wife and six children; but as soon as he heard of the late prospects of new Italy, he set out from that distant land, and came and threw the weight of his sword into the scale of his country's freedom. How inherent and intense must be the love of liberty, to induce a man to leave his family, and travel from the other side of the world to fight in its defence! The courage required for such an act is greater than that required on the field of battle. Yet the general says that the last year (though one of such peril to all concerned) has afforded him the greatest satisfaction. To feel his country for a time free, and to be able to do something to continue it so, was a reward beyond all price. He may yet have to lay his bones in a foreign land, but the remembrance of the past year will cheer him. The General has been twice condemned to death. While he was in London the Times recorded a sentence of death against him. But we hope soon to learn that he has rejoined his family in safety.

The General says that in the conflicts those who were wounded rejoiced in their wounds, and those who died gave their last breath to freedom. The enthusiasm of the dying, as they were borne along, found limits only in death.,

The last year has raised Italy in the scale of courage, of honour, and of nations. Under the inspiration of Mazzini and his able coadjuto rs the Italian character has been established. The blood shed now may secure the future of Italy.

As it is no longer possible to remit to Rome the late subscriptions for the succour of bereaved defenders—as they would fall into Oudinot's hands - the meeting was held on Thursday, night of which we last week gave notice. The Treasurer's account unanimously passed, and the balance ordered for distribution (by one in whom all have confidence among the exiles that are finding refuge in distant lands. In England, as many as 300 are reported to have arrived at Folkstone, and a preliminary meeting has been held, and a committee of influential names are forming, to obtain subscriptions for their assistance.

In Leicester Square on Friday night an Italian meeting was held to protest not merely against the Pope but against the system of popery. More than one kind of liberty will come out of these struggles.

We have to acknowledge the following subscriptions forwarded by R. H.:-William Thomas Makins, 1s.; John Miller, ls.; A Friend, 28.; George Harnden, 2s.; Frederic Palmer, ls.; Rebecca Burrell, ls; Jane Gibson, ls.; Marian Gibson, Is.; A Family (33. of which are sent by Three Children, earned by them, by eating dry bread instead of bread and butter, and spontaneously so) 103. Total, 20s.

The subscribers leave a discretional power with Mr. Holyoake to pay

over this sum to the Hungarians, if no longer needed for the Romans, but the facts detailed above warrant its appropriation to the parties for whom it was subscribed. Mr. Dobell handed 3s. to Mr. Holyoake, at the South London Meeting, on Wednesday, to be appropriated as might seem best. That, also, as requirements are urgent, has been added to the Roman Fund.

G. J. HOLYOAKE.

HOW HUMAN MANNERS ARE MADE.

MR. Willis KNOWLES writes— In Reasoner No. 158, is the following sentence, by Ion: “So simple is life when well understood, and so universal is leading truth, that the coherent carrying out of but a single general principle would give character to an individual, and remodel human manners.' This sentence may seem a happy collection of ideas upon “ human manners.” But to me it would appear happier to know, what “is life when well understood ?” And what is leading truth ?" What “single general principle would give character ?”—and what kind of character to an individual ?l'he solution to these “simple" questions might throw some light upon life, and cause life to be better understood

among working men than it seems to be at present. There are some of us who want the details—to see how such important results are arrived at.'

We answer-'Life when well understood' includes three ideas-peace, dignity, and progress. It implies to the individual equanimity and usefulness, to others the beneficence of act and example. Leading truth is a great conviction, oft recurring in practice, till it becomes an habitual sentiment. Any single general principle (or rule) would give character:' method, punctuality, pleasantry, non-retaliation, an interpretation of motives measured by facts, would each, if followed out in detail consistently, give peculiar character. The kind of character' depends on the rule adopted. Illo, in Schiller's Piccolomini, says

Dash and through with it! That's the better watch-word.
Then after come what may come. 'Tis'man's nature
To make the best of a bad thing once past.
A bitter and perplex'd' What shall I do!

Is worse to man than worst necessity. To the comprehension and adoption of this principle in military warfare the Duke of Wellington owes his position of the foremost captain of the age. His whole career and character are stamped with it. Men usually follow one rule one day and its opposite another. It is choosing a clear and good role, and following it every day and in every thing to which it is applicable, that remodels human manners.' Any one of the excellent maxims quoted last week from Wesley, at the end of the article

Methodism in the Provinces,' would, if carried out to its full extent in daily transactions, mark a man-or, in other words, make him a man of mark. I should dwell on this matter more at length, but it would savour of repetition, as I have specially and fully treated the whole question in the chapter Method, in “Rudiments of Public Speaking and Debate. For method is to literature what decision is to character, and principle to morals.

G. J. H.

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