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Hlustrative Notices.

The Redemption Society proceeds upon the useful rule of having no useless labour on its estate, and of keeping the expenses within its income. Its indefatigable secretary, Mr. Green, who so unintermittingly labours for its welfare, deserves the esteem of the friends of social reform. As experiment is the crown of theory, we trust our friends will acquaint themselves with the state and policy of this society, and accord it the support it deserves.

On the last Ascension Day, Mr. Adderly, in the House of Commons, moved that the House should not sit; when Mr. Bright made the following remarks, worth preserving :- There was a sort of hallucination over the minds of some hon. members as to the days on which the House should or should not proceed with public business; and, while he believed that all Christians regarded the momentous event of Ascension Day with the same feeling, yet he saw no reason why the House should give up its business on that day. After referring to the inconvenience which would result from detaining witnesses in town about to be examined before Committees, the hon. gentleman said he opposed the motion on the ground that no one could tell, if the principle were adopted, where it would end. Next year, they would have some other hon. member proposing some other day; and then, perhaps, a contention between English, Īrish, and Scotch, in favour of patron saints. He looked upon motions like the present as symptoms of a growing feebleness on the part of the House, and a disinclination to do the business of the country.'

Mr. Southwell has made some arrangements with Mr. Crabtree, of Manchester, for opening the Hall of Science in that town; but whether for amusement alone, or combined with lectures, is not known.

Mr. O'Connor, in the last Star but one, addressing the members located on the Bromsgrove estate, says, “It has happened that, upon every single estate, the most fortunate allottees have invariably grumbled with £30 of aid-money in their pockets; and such an effect has this constant ingratitude had upon my feelings, that 1, with the consent of the Directors, have resolved to hold a Conference at Nottingham, on Monday, the 6th of August; when that Conference, representing the whole body of members, shall decide whether the affairs of the Company shall be wound up, and then I shall be able to present a balance-sheet to the Conference, from the period of the Report of the Parliamentary Committee, down to Saturday, the 4th of August. And that being done, after I have completed the purchase and subdivision of Mathon, the leases and conveyances to those who shall have paid their rents due in next November, and the conveyances to those who have paid the amount of bonus to entitle them to conveyance—when I have done this, I will hand over the whole property to trustees, to be appointed by that Conference. I will then retire from public life. I will purchase a hundred acres of land-erect an agricultural college-give instruction, clothing, and food to a hundred youths, and divide amongst them the whole profits of their labour-receiving, perhaps, as my reward, their ingratitude also. However, I am resolved, after the treatment I have received from those to whose services I have devoted my life, my intellect, and my property, that nothing shall induce me to abandon this resolution.'

Mr. W. Devonshire Saull has been, for some time, in a dangerous state of illness, and his recovery is scarcely expected.

The sight of a young lady in a Butcher's shop, or as they are called in Scotland 'Fleshers Shops,' is an incongruity that few can feel reconciled to. Though this is not an absolute objection it is a suggestive one. There are many incongruities of sense we cannot abrogate, but we must abrogate all we can. The system of animal diet needs revision, and if vegetarians less resembled teetotalers in their advocacy-not in their habits—the practice would progress more.

G. J. H.

THE SONG OF THE COSSACK. and contended that the former was the enjoyment

of animal life; the speed of the animals and the [Englished from Beranger.]

dexterity of the riders, constituted a sport of a Come, courser mine! the Cossack's faithful friend superior order; and, as such, ought not to be the Fly, at the signal trumpets of the North.

subject of restrictive legislation.' Bold to attack, or prompt at pillage, lend

Punch the Younger reports the following sermon Wings under me to Death now rushing forth.

by his Grace:- The Right Rev. the Lord Bishop No gold makes rich thy bridle or thy side;

of Oxford preached on Sunday morning last at St. But wait the full price of my ravagings:

Michael's Church, Burleigh Street, Strand. The Neigh, O my faithful courser! neigh with pride :

church, as is usual on such occasions, was crowded, And trample under foot the peoples and their kings.

and his Lordship delivered an admirable discourse

on the 4th verse of the 15th of Judges-"And Fast-flying Peace has left thy reins to me;

Samson wentout and caught three hundred foxes." Europe has lost her ramparts of old time:

" And excellent brave sport he must have had, My greedy hands a treasury shall be ;

too,” cried his Lordship, "sport of a superior We will repose in Art's adopted clime.

order. I know, my brethren, that many look upon Return to drink in Seine's rebellious tide;

fox-hunting as a cruel and ungodly amusement, Wash off, the third time there, the blood that clings: but I contend that fox-hunting is nt cruel. Neigh, O my faithful courser l neigh with pride; Cock-fighting, I admit, is fraught with cruelty, And trample under foot the peoples and their kings. because it is a cold blooded act, witnessed by a

few, principally of the lower orders, in places As in a fortress, princes, priests, and peers, devoid of pomp and circumstance; but fos-hunt. Besieged by their own subjects sore oppress'd, ing is surrounded by everything that can excite the Cry to us---Come, be masters, end our fears; mind and delight ihe senses. It is true that a We will be serfs so tyrants we inay rest.

panting, frightened, fox is urged by howling dogs I take my lance: before me, far and wide,

for hours, that, at length, weary and worn down by Sceptre and cross are bow'd like abject things; fatigue, it is caught, and torn limb from limb; it Neigh, O my faithful courser! neigh with pride; is true that horses and riders are maimed, while And trample under foot the peoples and their kings. mothers, wives, and sisters, are sorrowfully anı.

ious, not knowing who may be brought back from But now I saw a giant's shade immense

the field a corpse or a mutilated sufferer ; but, in Fix on our bivouacs a lurid eye; He cried aloud-My reign doth recommence;

spite of this, fox-hunting, as I have said before, is

attended by so much excitement that it loses its And with his war-axe pointed westernly. The monarch of tbe Huns was at my side;

traits of cruelty, and constitutes a sport of a higher

order.' The son of Attila true service brings. Neigh, 0 may faithful courser! neigh with pride ;

Just Published, price 1d., And trample under foot ihe peoples and their kings.

. . All this enlightenment, proud Europe's trust

ply to the Rev. E. Noyes's Sermon on the

Ad This knowledge that defends her not to day-

Freedom of the Human Will. By X. G. B. All shall be swallow'd in the clouds of dust

dressed to the General Baptist Association, to whom Thy steps shall raise around me on my way.

the sermon was preached, and by whom it is pub

lished. Efface, efface, efface, in our new ride, Towers, temples, laws, all history's sacred things.

London : J. Watson, 3, Queen's Head Passage, Neigh, O my faithful courser! neigh with pride;

Paternoster Row; and sold by all booksellers. And trample under foot the people's and their kinsg.

Just 1823.

Published, Price 6d., in a pictorial wrapper, an

Illustrated Guide to Badajoz, a Grand Pictorial ON THE USE OF THE WORD RELIGION.' Model at the Royal Surrey Zoological Gardens

with 16 engravings of Napoleon, Wellington, and MR. Evitor,-You say in last Reasoner, p. 29, Soult--plaris and views of the town and fortifications that you are not ‘able to see the utility of styling, -and the final storming of the city-containing an as Panthea does, the harmony of the intellect and introductory sketch of the War in the Peninsula, the affections--the "religion of the heart.",

and an historical account of the three English Sieges If you refer to my article, you will see that I hare not done this. The passage which I suppose

it stood during the war.

An excellent little illustrated Guide to Badajoz.' you allude to is in the concluding sentence, and -Sun. runs thus : 'that religion of the combined heart,

Also, the Penny Illustrated Guide to Badajoz, mind, and soul, which, by whatever name it may

with 8 engravings, a sketch of the war, and a graphic be called,' &c., and this, it is evident froin the con

account of the final storming of the city in the last text, is understood by me to be l'antheism.

memorable siege. I quite agree with you that the practice of deno.

G. Vickers, Holywell Street, and all Booksellers. minating as 'religion,' any belief or practice which does not recognise a Deity, is confusing and objec

INTIMATIONS. tionable, both intellectually and morally; that it leads to much sophistry, and tends greatly to ob

The Reasoner is sent free by Post, the Quarter's scure the question in hand, as to the benefit or the Subscription 48. 4d., on thin paper 38. 3d., truth of religion itself. But Pantheism recognises and issued in Monthly Parts and Half-yearly not only the heart and the mind, but the soul also ;

Volumes. it not only loves man, but worships God. I think, therefore, it may not inappropriately be called a RECEIVET.-A., Worcester.-Supplement to the Te.igion.

PANTUEA. Manchester Examiner and Times, No. 71.

Dublin Commercial Journal and Family Herald, THE BISHOP OF OXFORD ON FOX

No. 29.
HUNTING.

London : - Printed by A. Holyoake, 54, Exmouth "The Bishop of Oxford (says the Times, of April Street, Clerkenwell, and Published by J.Watson, 20) drew a distinction between fox-hunting and 3, Queen's Head Passage, Paternoster Row. cock-tighting, in point of cruelty to the animal;

Wednesday, July 18, 1849.

[graphic]

[CONCLUDED FROM LAST NUMBER.) In censuring, as Mr. Lewes does, Robespierre for his inflexibility in following out his own maxims, Mr. Lewes seems to us to give currency to great laxity of political morality, and to shake the faith of mankind in the wisest maxims of politics. A general rule once adopted is, with wise legislators, founded on the calculation that partial evil is compensated by the general good. There is no course free from evil, and the general rule-with all its occasional harshness—is generally more benevolent to the mass of mankind than the exceptional policy that leaves public government at the mercy of caprice. No judge ever sat upon the criminal bench who has not trembled as he pronounced some dreadful doom on particular erring culprits; but the judge is sustained by the great conviction that mercy to some individuals is cruelty to the whole people.

Robespierre seems often to have acted on this conviction. It cannot be hidden from such an accomplished philosopher as Mr. Lewes, that Benevolence, Generosity, and even Magnanimity, are but too often the virtues of vanity and weakness—that more cruelty would really be more kindness. To rescue this language of paradox, and make the meaning intended more plain, 'we may say that much of that which passes for private beneficence and generosity, is often a public evil. The grand question is-what is real kindness? We fear to leave this question so briefly touched lest it should be misunderstood. So many will take this language to be an encouragement to hardness of feeling, and insensibility to human suffering—of which there is too much already in the world : but all we wish to be understood is, that when we intend to be kind we should care that we are so. The man who throws his money out of the window and leaves it, in the impulse of his beneficence, to be picked up by whomsoever straggles by, is the ideal of some men touching warm and generous natures, who know no cold calculation. The man who should take his money to his gate, and take care that some needy man had it, would be classed among those who wanted generous warmth of heart. Yet such a man would be the real benefactor. We have known many who would thus be classed among the cold calculators' who perform acts of refined and exalted generosity, who dry up the tears of sorrow, raise np indigence, assist industry, and make more wretched homes happy in one year than your generous men, whom the world commonly

[No. 165, Vol. VII.)

applauds, do in their whole lives. The only offerice these men commit is that of being sure that they are useful, and that their money is put to some effectual end. The thoughtless may scorn this calculation, but there are many who can bear grateful testimony to its regal' value.

Amid the renovators of society of the first French Revolution, Robespierre appears to have been the chief revolutionist who had thought on these things. In this respect, as in many others, he was before his age, and seems yet to be before his commentators and biographers of 1849.

Mr. Lewes clears Robespierre from the charge of participation in the massacres of September. It is allowed that Robespierre remonstrated against them. But there is still left open the reproach that he did not act against them. Indeed, when it has been found impossible to connect Robespierre with the bloodshed ascribed to him, he has been made criminal for not preventing it. He is accused for his silence. Yet it appears to us that the nature of those times afford an ample solution of

enigma, and makes Robespierre's conduct to be not only necessity, but policy and wisdom. To do evil that good might come was a maxim in high repute among the early revolutionists. To sacrifice a portionto commit crime in order to accomplish a good—is not an error confined to the Committee of Public Safety. We have lately seen our own government act upon it. We have seen them employing Powell to stimulate rebellion that they might have the credit and pleasure of crushing it. Danton said, we will kill the priests and nobles- they are not indeed guilty, but they are impediments, and they embarrass the future. Have not the moderate government of Odillon Barrot of this hour acted upon the same policy with regard to Rome? Even now nine-tenths of the world receive in practice the dogma that shedding blood is the grand specific "for preventing blood-shedding. Let us, therefore, learn justice of experience, when canvassing the acquiescence of one who sat in councils where the young St. Just uttered the bloody presentiment, that they who only half make revolutions dig their own graves. The doctrine of murder had been taught these reformers by their tyrants, and the people were mad with it; and it was heroic and far-seeing in Robespierre—it manifested a reliance on reason far beyond his compeers—that he remonstrated against these determinations. But it would have been an arrogance and tyranny in him, which would never have been forgiven by those who now condemn him for his submission, had he sought to counteract the general will. The present writer has often sat in councils insignificant enough compared with these in question, but still analogouswhere he was equally powerless against the same doctrine; and in the agitations of popular political parties it is not an uncommon occurrence to witness the indignation of the oppressed reach so sublime a height as to make the protests of humanity, of experience and reason, appear feeble, cold, and cowardly, if not treacherous. All you can do in these storms is to wait till the fatal truth comes out that crimne multiplies crime

- that as one lie requires a hundred others to make it plausible, so one murder, whether committed by those in power or in opposition, necessitates a hundred others to defend it—and that only those can defeat oppression who dare be just, even under disadvantage. Robespierre, who

was a thinker, and wlio knew the tenor and course of revolutions philosophically, must have consciously acted his part. He must have known that in all great commotions there arise bodies of men who have never been inured to reason-who have been infuriated by tyranny until they have become tyrants to themselves, and rush conscientiously on their own destruction : men whom nobody can refute but themselves, and the only wise course is to sit down and let them do it. Robespierre appears to have done this, and in this respect proved his great practical wisdom. In Catholic countries especially, where men are reared and governed by fear, when they become reformers they write all their panaceas in blood. Robespierre early foresaw that he should not survive this experiment, that it would include him in its carnage--and it did; and the moral of his Life will not be read, till the political lesson of his death is understood by his followers.

When Robespierre could be reviled in security, it was said he was an audacious miscreant. When he was rescued from this imputation, it was said he wanted courage to be atrocious. When it was shown that he braved assassination, and stood at his post in the face of death, it was said : yes, he had courage, but it was always being screwed to the sticking point. But the coward is one who attempts to screw his courage up and fails, while Robespierre did accomplish the act of daring. Robespierre sat in the Hotel de Ville writing a proclamation as his murderers broke into it and asceniled the stairs-he continued writing until they shot him.

• A known correspondent, writing from Paris, says*—“I have just been favoured with a private view of a most remarkable collection of historic documents connected with the first Revolution in France, and the men who were in turns its heroes and its victims: a brief notice of which—especially as, in order to facilitate certain family settlements among the heirs of the collector, the whole is about to be brought into the market-cannot fail to interest some of your readers. The collection is the property of the Saint-Albins, heirs of a famous leader in the times of the Convention and the Committee of Public Safety-whose identity will be understood by the historical reader, though for the sake of the living I refrain from writing his name. It consists of a unique and almost complete series of busts, portraits, autographs, pamphlets, and other documents. ... One of them is the identical

paper

which Robespierre was signing when he was shot. It was the sight of this document which enabled Lamartine to refute the old calumny of the Tribune’s having attempted self-murder rather than go to trial. The paper leaves no doubt. There are the letters Ro...., and then a splash of blood.”'

The most inexplicable thing in Mr. Lewes's book is his account of the death of Robespierre. The account which he quotes is as stale as calumny itself, and should have been revised before being adopted. He is describing the passage to the guillotine: At length they reached la Place de la Revolution. Not a word did they address to the people Their doom was inevitable, and they believed they died as martyrs. Robespierre mounted the ladder with a firm step. The executioners tore off the band

Athenæum, April 28.

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