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ADVERTISEMENTS.

THE POUR P.'S, price Id. [The subjoined scale of charges for Advertise What I think of the present state of things is ments has been adopted to facilitate announcements this-'tis a game at cards. Princes, Aristocracy, of New Books, and matters in which we take Priests, and Rulers shuffle, cut, and deal the pack, interest. An Advertisement of ten lines, 28. 6d.; and by some swindling trick keep all the court each additional line, 2d.)

cards and trumps to themselves.-The Author. Just Published, Price Twopence,

Now Ready, THE LIFE AND CHARACTER OF HENRY THE JOUR P.PS-vis., Princes, Peers, Priesta,

HETHERINGTON, from the Eloge by T. thoroughfares, back streets, lanes, alleys, cellars, Cooper, author of the 'Purgatory of Suicides the and garrets. It is a work which will speedily find Oration at Kensal Green Cemetery, by G. J. Holy. its way into palaces, mansions, common dwelling oake, editor of the Reasoner : the Speech of James houses, cottages, and hovels. Order it immediately, Watson : a Tribute, by W. J. Lintos with Hether.

London : W. Strange, Paternoster Row; and ington's 'Last Will and Testament.'

all booksellers,

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Works Published by the late H. Hetherington.

TOUTHWARK DEBATING CLUB, No. IA, Cheap Salvation, by H. Hetherington ...... 03 Webber Street, Blackfriars Road. Trial of Henry Hetherington for Blasphemy Question for Discussion on Sunday, Oct. 7th, at before Lord Denman, with his excellent

Nine o'clock- Is there a God? defence....

0 6 The attendance of friends to free inquiry is res. The Questions of Zapata

4 pectfully requested. The Celebrated Speech of Robert Emmett, the Irish Patriot

1 A Letter on Superstition, by William Pitt,

INTIMATIONS. first Lord Chatham

0 1 A View of all Religions

The Reasoner is sent free by Post, the Quarter's

0 R. Cooper's Infidel's Text Book, bds... 28 Subscription 48. 4d.. on thin paper Ss. 3d.,

and issued in Monthly Parts and Half-yearly [Or in 13 Nos., at 2d. each)

Volumes. Strauss's Life of Jesus. 4 vols., cloth...... 160

[Only 2 complete copies remain unsold.) Vole. III. and IV. ditto, each....

40 Received.-R. B., Edinburgh. (His kind officet [A considerable quantity of numbers re

will much serve us.)-R. G. W. The letter to main on hand, so that persons having incom

an 'only' friend was duly forwarded.)-- Dublin plete sets may possibly complete them.

Family Journal, No 39.- Christian Beacon, No. But such applications must be made im

1.-Spectator, No. 1107. Reflections for Eng. mediate!y.)

lishmen.' (Too long.)-N. S. and enclosure. -Babeuf's Conspiracy for Equality. 1 vol.,

W. Sanderson.-The Aberdeen Herald, No. 891. Cloth bds.

-Sheffie.d Independent, No. 1643. - Bristol [Only a very few copies remain unsold.]

Mercury, No. 3105.-Hull Advertiser, Nos. 2287, The Yanoo, a Satirical Rhapsody, 1 vol.,

2288.-Spectator, No. 1108.-Dublin Commercial cloth bds...

2 0 Journal.-Nation, Nos. 2, 3, 4.-J. F., Hull. Ditto, in a wrapper

1 (No. 9 was sold out as soon as published, but The new Ecce Homo. 1 vol..... reduced to

the address at the grave can be had in the Life Carpenter's Political Text Book. I vol..... 2 6

of lletherington.) - Harvest-time' and 'Fair. Atheism Justified and Religion Superseded 0 ness,' by Spartacus.—' The Fast Day.' (A few Cobbett's Lectures on the French Revolution

spirited lines circulatea by a Derby friend, but of 1830..

2 0 not suited for transfer to our columns.)- British Library of Reason, Nos. I to 23........ each 0 1 Banner, No. 91.-Nonconformist, No. 202.Plain Cooking for Plain People ...,

0 3 ‘Shakspere: Collier's View and Birch's Inquiry.' To be had of J. Watson, 3, Queen's Head Pas - Scottish Agricultural Gazette, No. 39.- What sage, Paternoster Row.

is Atheism ?' by a Philosophical Chris:ian.Operatives' Free Press, No. 2.- A Vegetarian.--

A. Tobjoy.- Common Sense. We are gratified NEW WEEKLY NEWSPAPER,

by the explanations he asked.-Erpress.-MarPrice 3d., Stamped.

chester Examiner, No. 93.-- The Wesleyan On Saturday, Oct. 6, will be published, No. 1 of Excommunicators,' by R. L. B. HE WEEKLY TRIBUNE, uniform with the

Spectator, devoted to the energetic and inde. Mr. W. Cooper has been lecturing in Lancashire, pendent advocacy of Democratic Reform and we are informed, very successfully. He returned Social and Moral Progress.

to town this week, but goes again to Lancashire in London : Vickers, Holywell Street, Strand.

a few days. This evening (Wednesday) he will lecture at the Hall of Science, City Road, on the

* Beacon Agitation in Lancashire.' ,

The Democratic Review for October contains a 10, Williamson Square, Liverpool. Travellers paper of great ability and interest - The Thirteenth accommodated upon the most reasonable terms. of June'-by Victor Considerant. J. S. informs his friends and others who are about ** Mr. Holyoake will reply this week in the to Emigrate, either to the Canadas or United Northern Star to the letter recently addressed to States, that he has entered into arrangements with

him in that paper. • respectable shipping house, and is prepared to furnish information as to cost of passage, time of London :-Printed by A. Holyoake, 3, Queen's sailing, &c., &c.

Head Passage, Paternoster Row, and Published All communications must be post-paid, and by J. Watson, 3, Queen's Head Pasage, Pater. contain

a postage stamp, or they will not be an. noster Row. swered.

Wednesday, October 3, 1849.

THE

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No. 15.-New SERIES.] EDITED BY G. J. HOLYOAKE.

[Price 21.

An author, from whom better things might have been hoped, exalts to the uttermost the fact, if it be

so, of this age being free from fear of the faggot, or the torture-chamber. Fear of the social circle, fear of the newspaper, fear of being odd, fear of what may be thought by people who never did think, still greater fear of what somebody may say-are not these things a clinging dress of torture? A mean and cowardly reserve upon the most important questions of human lite, is the characteristic of modern tiraes. We live in continual fear of the worst aspects of public opinion.-Friends in Council.

THE INTEGRITY OF CHARTIST ORATORS.

A QUESTION RAISED IN THE NORTHERN STAR.' Three weeks ago a genuine Chartist letter was addressed to me in the Northern Star. "You always know a Chartist epistle, although you may not recognise the name of the writer, and may not see it in Northern Star type. You know it by two things-redundancy of feeling, and redundancy of epithet. Of such a kind is the letter which I have to introduce. But though it has these marks of a political, as strongly defined as ever were those of a religious sect, the letter is itself entitled to respect, as indicating an appreciation of political purity-in which I presume the editor of the Star also shares, by his insertion of such a communication. It opens up a question upon which great diversity of opinion prevails, and which possibly may now be set at rest. The letter in question is headed Chartist Orators' To Mr. Holyoake,' and runz as follows:

“SIR,- I believe that the astounding assertion you made at the commencement of your lecture last Sunday night, in the Hall of Science, City Road, on your subject of “ Paid Orators,” “that several Chartists were in the pay of the Tories, to oppose the Corn-Law League in their meetings,” has no foundation for truth, and is entirely unworthy of your general good sense as a public teacher. Surely we do not stand in need of slanderers and vituperators in our own camp of our own conduct. Trusting to your goodness of heart, I wait impatiently for the proof requisite to establish your extraordinary and uncalled-for assertion through this channel.

“I wished the same night, at the conclusion of your lecture, to ask you for the requisite proof of your assertion, but was prevented fulfilling that duty by the hurried dismissal of the audience by the fiddle-string scrapers.

DAVID Cater.' The week in which this letter appeared-an unusual thing I did not see the Star, and Mr. Thomas Cooper was the first person to draw my attention to it. Afterwards I failed in procuring a copy, until my friend Mr. Ruffy Ridley lent me one. Then I lost no time in addressing the

(No. 176, Vol. VII..]

following reply to the Star. From what I say it will be seen how far I was from introducing the question which Mr. Cater brings before the public. But as one in their own camp’ I should like to see the question carried farther, and I shall be ready with any explanation that may be required me: for, if the assertion Mr. Cater reports me to have made be so astounding,' the answer and disproof of it is, no doubt, ready-is easy, clear, and abundant. My answer, as forwarded to the Star, is as follows:

Sir,—The notice you obliged me by giving in the town edition of last week's Star of the circumstance which prevented me replying earlier to Mr. Cater's letter, has exonerated me from the seeming disrespect of neglecting that gentleman's communication. But I confess that I should bave felt uneasy in remaining three weeks under the imputation of having vituperated' my co-labourers, the Chartists, with whom I have always co-operated cordially, and whose confidence it has been a privilege to retain—had not Mr. Cater's letter borne evidence of incapacity to judge the question he raises, which disarms it of the power of doing serious injury. He reports me as one of the “slanderers' of his friends by an assertion he charges me with having made; then he calls upon me for the proof. But while an assertion is open for proof, it is too early to judge it, and pronounce it ‘slander;' for if the proof be forthcoming, the assertion is a truth, and no slander at all.

Mr. Cater alleges that, in my lecture at the Hall of Science on · Hired Orators,' I said that several Chartists were in the pay of the Tories, to oppose the Corn-law League in their meetings. This, however, is a mistake. So far from asserting the venality of the Chartists in this matter, my olject was to defend them from this imputation; and I did defend them from it. I said If it were true that the Chartists ever took bribes, they took them only on the side of their conscience. If a man takes a bribe to contradict his own convictions, he is veral and a traitor to truth ; but if he take it only to give a more energetic expression to his opinions, he may be considered as the victim of a pernicious policy which lays his integrity under suspicion, but he can hardly be considered criminal.'

This, I said, was the case of the Chartists. They hated the AntiCorn-law League before they were said to be bribed, and if they took pay, they only took it to hate it the more.'

The evident good feeling with which Mr. Cater writes has not escaped my attention, and I hope he will not consider me as forgetful of it in what I am about to say. I am not aware that Mr. Cater is sufficiently known to the Chartist public to entiile bim to be considered as personating that body. Therefore, I pass from him to observe that, had his complaint come from Mr. Feargus O'Connor, from my friend “ L'Ami du Peuple' (the Friend of the People), from Mr. Thomas Clark, Samuel Kidd, Thomas Cooper, or other representative name, I should bave impressed this fact upon public attention-viz., that though I did not say that the Chartists were ever bribed, it is said they were—and it is said so by persons whose authority is not to be disregarded with impunity. When the League newspaper was about to cease, one of its concluding numbers threatened, if I reinember rightly, to substantiate its accusation of the

hire of Chartist speech-makers, and moreover to publish who they were, who bribed them, and what they received. At that time I looked into the Star to see this menace defied, publicly and scornfully, under the joint signature of every Chartist of note-but I found no such repudiation. I say, therefore, that if the particular imputation here in discussion has, in the opinion of Chartism's representatives, any power to harm them, they should at once resolve themselves into a Committee of Inquiryforce this dead League upon the stage again-take its evidence—and give that answer which shall set the question at rest for ever. One who never 'slanders' friend or foe,

GEORGE JACOB HOLYOAKE.

LITERARY LOGIC.

The manner in which the commonest and soundest rules of logic are violated, even in literary criticism, is surpassingly flagrant. Persons unaccustomed to analyse what passes around them would scarcely believe it.

Discoursing with a literary critic the other day on Birch’s ‘Inquiry into the Philosophy and Religion of Shakspere,' he put this questionIf I were to offer you £300, could you not undertake to prove from the writings of Shakspere that his religion was that of the Church of England ?' I answered that for so handsome a sum one might be induced to make an attempt, but my success would altogether depend upon the conditions of proof, which conditions, in right reason and logical rule, were quite independent of the prepossessions of authors, the caprices of critics, or the seduction of bribes. If I am permitted to extract whatever passages appear to relate to the Church of England, and you will accept them for proof, the thing can be done. But if the proof is to be founded on a logical induction—i.e., on inference from the whole evidence of Shakspere's, play's £1000 would weigh as nothing, would not affect the result one jot or tittle, would do nothing to save the proof from failure. Is it not strange that critics, who should be aware of the inexorable nature of truths, will continually reason (not reason, I should say talk) as though proof was a matter of money, not of evidence-a matter of caprice, not a matter of facts ? The case stands thus :—There is the view Mr. Birch is said to take: Dr. Ulrici represents Shakspere to be a Calvinist—others a Catholic—others a Church of England inan. Let us place them in order. 1

2
3

4 Mr. Birch's view. Ulrici's. The Catholic The Protestant. We now go over the whole of Shakspere's writings, and collect all the facts of theological opinion expressed, and arrange them under their respective heads. If 500 belong to class No. 1 (Mr. Birch's view), 100 to Ulrici's, 50 to the Catholic, 30 to the Protestant, the facts would stand thus: in favour of Mr. Birch's view,

Ulrici's, The Catholic, The Protestant, 500. If the 500 facts fall under the head of the Protestant view, and the 30 under Mr. Birch's, the proof is in favour of the Protestant view. Wherever the majority of facts fall, there is the probability of truth and proof.

100.

50.

30,

Whatever is the issue in Mr. Birch's work is left to the reader to determine—but this is the sound principle on which the book is written.

The Curiosities of Criticism, which we lately published, show the • Inquiry into the Philosophy and Religion of Shakspere' was frequently reviewed after the manner exploded of the hypothesis recounted above.

G. J. HOLYOAKE.

MR. BRONTERRE O'BRIEN'S EXTRAORDINARY REPLY.

The excitement got np in London by religious partizans about the assumed opening of the Post Office on Sundays, is indicative of the disposition of the power of the sectaries to arrest utility. The ostensible ground of their opposition is a desire to preserve the poor man's Sabbath as a day of leisure. But it is remarkable that churches and chapels are never moved when the poor man's interests are really in danger. They are silent when the Rights of Labour,' or the 'Factory Question' demand attention.

The overtures which Mr. Duffy, of the Nation, has been obliged to make to the Irish priesthood, is another sign of the times which calls for observation—but we pass this by this week, as well as the noble, and at the same time incongruous, 'Caustic'-toned article in the Weekly Dispatch, on ‘Theism and Atheism.'

A correspondent sends us a communication, to which we prefer to give immediate insertion. He writes :- Mr. B. O'Brien, on Sunday, September 30, delivered a two hours' lecture principally in reply to your remarks on the animadversions he appended to the late H. Hetherington's Will, in his Social Reformer; during which a gentleman rose and said, from your well known fairness as a controversialist, he had no doubt you would admit liis (Mr. O'Brien's) objections to your statements in the Reasoner; to which Mr. O'Brien said 'not a bit of it,' adding, as a proof, that you refused to inscrt in the Reasoner a written complaint of Mr. Alexander's, of a fulsome eulogy you offered Mr. Thomas Cooper in the pages of your journal—and intimated that you were no friend to his views on Land, Credit, Currency, and Exchange--that you were too timid, truckled to atheists, middle class financiers, and the respectables of society. As to his so-called arguments against your principles, they were a mere repetition of his foriner assertions, that atheisın was the opposite extrcme of superstition- principles superinduced by reaction, etc. He sneered at philosophical deism. When he was asked to define his true religion, he answered it was the connecting link between his mind, or conscience, and the Supreme. He said he could not prove that there was a God the saine as he could demonstrate a problem of Euclidand neither could an atheist prove there was no God. His conscience, however, told him there was one. He talked about the convenience atheism was to tyrants and oppressors—how, if he were to avow athei m, it would injure the cause of Land, Credit, Currency, and Exchange: hé should lose all the followers he had got. Once remove the restraints to sin, tyranny, and oppression, which God and religion imposed, and he would retire from the advocating the cause of Land, Credit, Currency, and Exchange in ineffable disgust. Here Mr. O'Brien vituperated

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