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that it was necessary that the author should attest the important t..cts it asserted with his name, as they could have no reliable value unless the author was a lawyer. He has come to the resolution of owning the authorship, and announces himself as Mr. R. W. Russell, of Cincinnati, United States, Counsellor-at-Law. We have had several opportunities of knowing the author, and believe him to be a gentleman of shrewd observation, great practical ability, and sound views—and we are glied to find that the publishing of the above volume has been undertaken by Mr. Watson.

This is the only book ever published in this country explaining and contrasting the effects of the institutions and laws of the United States and England upon the social condition of the people of the two countries. This is done in a brief, plain, and simple form. The merits and clefects of American institutions and laws areset forth-a comparison is instituted with those of England, their respective influences on the condition of the people are contrasted, and the prevalent opinion that American pro-pierity is caused by the abundance of land, and British and Irish poverty by a sa perabundant population, is thoroughly examined and refuted.

The author is an Englishman by birth, but has resided several years in America; and it is worthy of especial remark, that this is the only book on the United States published in this country within the last quarter of a century written by a permanent resident of America. The númerous books on America which have almost annually emanated from the British press have been written by mere tourists, or temporary residents ; and it is dangerous to place full reliance upon many of these statements. Indeed those works, although no doubt very amusing, are not calculated to satisfy those who desire to comprehend the great social questions of the age, and ascertain the practical effects of the institutions of the New World. The work of M. de Tocqueville, on Democracy in America, is by far too ponderous for the ordinary reader, besides which he was a mere tourist in the United States, and as such liable to many delusions and misconceptions.

To EMIGRANT's to the United States, who are expected to possess some acquaintance with the institutious of their adopted country, this work will be of great service. It often happens that English mechanics and others, although generally well informed upon other matters, do not, upon their arrival in America, possess an adequate knowledge either of the institutions of their native or adopted land, so as to be able to take part in the ordinary conversation of Americans upon political topics. It is of great importance for men claiming to be intelligent to inake themselves better acquainted with these subjects, in order that they may be treated with a proper degree of respect on their arrival in America.

The reader will find most important information respecting the actual condition of the people of all classes in the free states, whether natives or emigrants; which information the author has had the best opportunities of obtaining, and he has taken great pains to state fairly and impartially whatever is not to be found in the ordinary guide books, but which may assist his fellow-countrymen in forming a proper opinion upon the great question of emigration to America.

As to the future in America, he undertakes, not only to display the true character of democracy there at the present moment, its past effects and present tendencies, but also to point out its probable ultimate results. He contends that it is the mission of democracy to introduce a new social system, based upon the principle of co-operation; and the various gradations by which it is conceived this result will be reached are fully explained.

The testimony of the principal European writers on America as to the condition of the people, and the general results of democratic institutions, is collected and placed before the reader in a condensed form.


We are glad to find that General Aveyzana, whom we lately mentioned, has reached home safely. 'An interesting ceremony took place yesterday in this city,' says the New York Tribune, of the lith ult. We mean the presentation of a sword to General Aveyzana, on account of his share in the defence of Rome against the French. The volunteer military of the city were out in great numbers, and made a brilliant display. The sword, which was the gift of the Italian residents of New York, and which was extremely elegant, was presented by Mr. F. Foresti. General Aveyxana has been long known and highly esteemed in this community, and his gallant conduct at Genoa and Rome amply deserved the warmer public sentiment towards him, of which this occasion furvished an indication.' The General also received from Dr. Gabor Naphegyi, in behalf of the Central Hungarian Committee, a Magyar scharf and a laurel wreath.



In the distribution of Weekly Bills of Contents of the Reasoner through the London agents, we find that many agents never get them. If a supply is sent to provincial agents who supply others in their districts, the supply is often imperfect through accident, deficiency, or pressure of business. The only remedy is to forward a weekly bill to each agent. To accomplish this we want one active friend in each town, who will walk through it and take note of all the newsvendors in it, and who will, on condition of receiving the necessary supply, deliver one weekly to each vendor. Where the town is too large for one person to walk through it, a selection of the most likely and most public vendors could be made. Every person who will serve us in this way, even to a small extent, will save us important expense, and render equally important service to our circulation. We shall be glad to receive a line from any friends who will so assist us.

We again solicit the attention of our friends to this notice. In Birmingham, Liverpool, Oldham, Bradford, Hyde, Mansfield, and other places, we have inet with generous co-operation. If some friend in each

town will respond to our request we may be able to effect a usefulness hitherto denied to us.

Many correspondents whose interest in the welfare of the Reasoner we know, and whose accuracy we cannot question, inform us of the great difficulty_experienced in the provinces of getting the Reasoner even on order. Especially in Lancashire, where we least expected it, this is the

Whatever we can we do in town to secure the willingness of the London agents to act we have not been unmindful with provincial. But our chief reliance is on our friends—who, by multiplying orders, and repeating them till executed, can effect an improved circulation (of which there are already signs) for us in spite of all obstacles. G. J. H.



The Concordium, at Ham Common, has passed into new hands, and a reverend gentleman is at the head of the establishment; but the name of the principal proprietor, if we were at liberty to give it, would be a guarantee to our friends that it will still be devoted to progressive purposes. Its present use is that of an educational asylum for orphans whose parents bave died of the Cholera.

KOSSUTH'S PRAYER. From our beroes' dust upspringeth

Light to crown my people's brow, [This prayer, which is considered one of the happiest efforts of Spartacus, has As thy blessing earthward wingeth?

God of battles ! speed our vow. been set to music by Miss S. D. Collet.

SPARTACUS. Apart from our estimate of the excellence of this rendering, we insert it in

YET, order to express our regret that such prayers are never answered. What (FROM DUFFY's new 'NATION.' can show more forcibly the isolation in Yet we labour, ever hoping which man is left, when a prayer like Though misfortune mocks endeavour, this—which all Europe, if unfettered, Down disaster's desperate sloping would have responded to-falls again to Yet we struggle hoping everthe earth ?-Ed.]

Wearily. God I look down upon thy servant,

Even as the stream is flowing

To the sea with ceaseless motion,
From thy constellated throne;

Never wave its current knowing,
Of his prayer-full lips observart,
Million-voiced in their tone.

Pass our lives to sorrow's ocean,
God! I stand in sunlit splendour,

Ceaselessly. On my brethren's hero tomb:

Weep'st thou, Hope ? unhappy mother, Let thy smile, with radiance tender,

O'er thy dead child, Misery? Wreathe their dust with holy bloom. Let us sit by one another,

And our tuoan shall echo thee God and Father of the Nations !

Drearily. Warrior deeds complete our prayer; Yet though hope herself were dying And our thunderous supplications

In despite of Love and Glory, Doom the tyrants to despair.

Our crushed lives beside her lying God! we stand, the free in spirit,

Should maintain the same high story, Tearless, o'er our patriot dead : Tbere shall never slaves inherit,

Steadfastly. Nor a slavish people tread.

Yet, O Hope! thy ghost shall lead us

Through the grave of Time's commoGod of heaven, earth, and ocean! Till the eternal watchers heed us, [tion, Freedom's sacrifico is tbine;

Till they give to our devotion And a martyr land's devotion

Victory. Thou wilt recognise divine.



Łllustrative Notices.

OUR readers will remember that some time since we published a series of papers entitled a ' History of the Swiss Republics.' Their discontinuance, we onght to have said before, was not owing in any way to the author, Mr. Collet, who was quite ready to complete the task he had undertaken. But we felt that the length of the papers, necessary for the full development of the history of Switzerland, made them unfit for a periodical of the nature of the Reasoner. The research and practical ability displayed in the composition of these papers make us regret very much our inability to complete, and even reprint in a separate form, so valuable a contribution to republican history.

The editor of the Hull Advertiser has subjected himself to an inundation of condemnitory letters, for having asserted that it can never be too strongly impressed on the public mind that the scourge of cholera is not a Divine visitation. It is as human in its origin as the sword, and those who die of it are as much the victims of human cupidity, neglect, ignorance, and social wrong as those who die on the field of battle. The midnight murderer in the act of shedding blood is not less engaged in doing the will of God than the cholera in destroying the occupants of the miserable tenements with which Hull so profusely abounds. He has not, however, withdrawn his expressed opinions, nor even contented himself with stoutly defending them. He declares himself “prepared to maintain that those who oppose him are, to some extent, instrumental in screening the authors of many of our physical and social evils from well-deserved chastisement.' He further declares, that “it is no hyperbolical figure of speech to say that there are men in Hull at this moment indirectly engaged in the manufacture of cholera, and yet po Christian voice is raised in condemnation of their conduct.' The importance and effect of the article may be estimated from the fact that one of the Hull clergymen has preached a sermon upon it !

Spartacus writes:– Allow me to remark one illogicality in the gaol chaplain who burned the woman's finger. His object was, not to convince her of hell, nor to prove the paintalness of burning, but to prove that if she did not confess she would le burned. How did the burnt finger convince her of this? This clerical absurility seems to have been overlooked.'

A gentleman in Coventry writes:—The view you take of Chapman's case bas found, now, many adherents. Albeit, the opinions and exclamations, as far as I was cognisant of them, [the writer's means of observing are extensive] were before all one way, and that of course condemnatory.' [We sent a copy of the Reasoner with the article on the Rev. Mr. Chapman to that gentleman himself, to the present clergy man his successor, and to Sir Geore Grey the Home Secretary.]

N. S. fully accords with the observation in No. 11, that nothing is gained by dispeu sing with the church burial service unless something as carefully considered and more personally conscientious is put in its place,' and that the lamented death of Mı. Henry Hetherington is a suitable opportunity for suggesting the composition of such service.

The Social Reformer says that 'As a literary production, the Archbishop's prayer against the cholera exhibits no claim to approbation. It contains one egregious instance of false syntax; and its style is inappropriate and undigpified.'

Wo have received No. 1 of a new publication called the Christian Beacon, and having for its object the counteraction of the doctrines taught by Mr. South well in the L'incashire Beacon. The editor of the Christian Beacon appears to be an individual wrapt up in but indifferent theological garments. The appellation of "The Man from London,' which has been bestowed on Mr. Southwell, would appear to be quite applicable to the editor of the Christian Beacon; tor he appears to have followed Mr. Southwell from London to Manchester, and to be as familiar with the sayings of that gentleman, respecting the Apostles, in Paragon Coffee Hous', às of those be has since uttered in the Hall of Science, Manchester.

The following 'Queer Iteins in Old Accounts are taken from a number of the Chester Chronicle :- In the accounts of the expenses of some old municipal pageants and processions for the city of Chester, we find the following items :* Paid for keeping hell head (a representation of the mouth of hell), 8d. ; for making hell mouth and cloth for it, 4s.; for keeping of fire at hell moath, 4d. (a charge for coals to keep up hell-fire); paid to the demon, 21d. ; while the bishops had but 12d., and the angels only 8d. each." There were other little perquisites to the bishops, however, for one item runs thus—“ Paid Pilate, the bishops, and knights, to drink between the stages, 9d.” Other payments, gravely set down as ordinary matter of account, are still more grotesque -as, for instance.“ Paid for setting of the world on fire, 5d. ;” and, "Pait for half-a-yard of the Red Sea, 6d.”'

G. J. H.

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Miller, Duke-street, Grosvenor-square. - Pure [These lectures are quoted from the official an.

Bread, white and brown-brown flour also. bouncements of the respective institutions. When

Bartrop, 170, High Holborn.-Hominy, American we discontinued this list, friends arriving from the

Flour, scotch Oatmeal. provinces, as well as those residing in the metropolis,

Thomas Bay, 143, Bishopsgate-street Without. so complained of the want of this guide to the

-Oatmeal. leeture room that we have renewed it, and take

Inglis, New Street, Covent Garden.-Biscuits, much trouble to perfect it.]

Brown Bread, Indian Maize.

Edwards Brothers, Blackfriars Koad. - Meals,
Street, Fitzroy Square. -Oct. 5, [8] Mr. Bronterre Hominy, American Biscuits, etc.
O'Brien, 'Progress of Democracy at Home and
Abroad.' Oct. 7, (71) Thomas Cooper, ‘Doctrines

of Godwin's " Political Justice."

Mathematics no Mystery: or the Beauties and ECLECTIC INSTITUTE, 72, Newman Street, Ox

Uses of Euclid. Hlustrated by 8 Plates, ford Street. -October 7, (8) J. B. O'Brien, B.A.,

containing 147 Diagrams. 2nd 1000...... 96 The Application of Scriptural Truths to the Prac.

Practical Grammar, Ird 1000.

1 tical Business of Life.'

Hand-Book of Graduated Grammatical Exer. Hall or SCIENCE, City Road. - Oct. 7, (75)

cises. 2nd 1009

i 0 Ur. G. J. Holyoake, 'How to Die.'

Hints Towards a Logic of Facts. 2nd 1000.. 1 City Mechanics' Institute, Gould-sq., Crutched

Rudiments of Public Speaking and Debate .. 1 6 friars. -Oct. 8, (9) Rev. Dr. Cromwell, F.S.A.,

Paley Refuted in his Own Words. Dedicated 'On the Antiquities of the British Islands.'

to w. & R. Chambers. 4th 1000 ........ 06 SOUTA Place, Moorfields.--Oct. 7, (115 a.m.) Life, Writings, & Character of Richard Carlile 0 6 a lecture.

Rationalism: a Treatise on the First PrinInstitute, 1, George Street, Sloane Square.

ciples of Societarian Reform.............. 0

Public Discussion every Friday evening. News
room open nightly.--Oct. 7, (7) Mr. H. Field,

Associative Homes for the People.'

Mr. Eliot, the author of a 'History of the

Liberty of Rome,' announces the tollowing im. (Pledged to the principle of secular instruction, portant discovery, made by him in the course of

his historical researches :- It was not the wil of we publish this list of schools to ajd in procuring Almighty God that, at a time so near the revelation them support, as well as to apprise our friends

of life and immortality, a man like Cæsar should where the beat kind of education can be had for their children.)

even seem to have obtained, throuxh devotion to Finsbury Birkbeck School, City Road.- Super- the other hand, it is as mercifully apparent that

himself, a lasting triumph upon the earth. On intendent, Mr. J. Runtz; Principal, Mr. Thomas

the fall of heathen Rome, over which Caesar had Cave. Hours, half-past 9 till 3.

risen, was not to be reversed or delayed.' What John-street, Fitzroy-square. ---Principal, Mr. A. D. Brooks. Hours, 91 till 31.

a mercs that the fall of Rome should be apparent

to tbe man who wrote a history of it! One might Ellis's Academy, 8, George-st., Euston-square. almost think that miracles were coming again. Open to boch sexes. Principals, Mr. & Mrs. Ellis.

Else Mr. Eliot must be an acute reasoner.
Hours, 9 to 124; from 1 to 4.
Birkbeck School, London Mechanics' Institution,

Southampton Buildings.- Patron, Earl of Radnor.
Principal, Jr. J. Kuntz, Hours, 9 to 3. Quarters,

Our Library of reference has just received a first Mondays in January, April, July and October.

handsome addition by a present from 'W.J. B.' Hali quarter pupils taken.

of the Life of the Rev. Joseph Blanco White, National Hall, 242, High Holborn.-Saperin.

written by himself, with portions of his Cortestendent, Mr. W. Lovett. Hours 9 till 3.-Girls'

pondence, edited by John Hamilton, in three

Schools, same hours.

It is our intention to present extracts, or an
Conductress, Miss Sunter.
Aurora Villa, North End, Hampstead. - Princi- epitome, of these remarkable books.
pal, Mr. H. L. Harrison. Pupils Boarded & Taught.

Acknowledged in No. 13

1436 [Considering that a more extensive use of R. Brown, Stoneharen

2 6 tarinaceous food would conduce to public health R. Ross, ditto ..

2 and privaie economy, we, in order to facilitate James Gray, per publisher

1 experiments, publish this list of houses known G. J. Yabsley, Limehouse, per do

2 to supply the specified kinds of food in their best H, P., pér Mr. 'Truelove

5 J. C.




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