On some doctrines of population, a paper, כרך 8

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עמוד 569 - ... births to every woman marrying one or more times. Thus in England ten married women bear 50, in France 35 children. It is thus evident that the birth-rate is depressed below its standard in England and in France ; it varies with the prosperity of the country, with the demand for people ; and it can be reduced to as low a figure as the lowest attainable death-rate. Therefore to keep a population stationary, or to retard national growth, there is no need of the destroying angels, war, pestilence,...
עמוד 570 - By Coblentz. on a rise of gentle ground, There is a small and simple pyramid. Crowning the summit of the verdant mound; Beneath its base are heroes...
עמוד 573 - God ; marrying and giving in marriage, as our returns show they do, with prudence in prosperous times, waiting in adverse times, and so slackening the increase of offspring. New and multiplying industries in towns call for men; and the colonies in America, South Africa, and Australia, are at times offering to pay for men and women to inherit and cultivate their fertile acres. While sustaining and increasing the number of men on the earth is laudable, the policy of perfecting their nature is of still...
עמוד 572 - Plymouth, and some here will drink " to his pious memory," and pass round the " loving "cup." Famines less than pestilences and wars are required as the ministers of depopulation, and when averted as civilisation advances by making the property of all conditionally the insurance of the lives of all, and by thus enlisting the intelligence of landlords and the humanity of Governments on the side of irrigation, drainage, transport, free trade, education, providence in families, the inhabitants of populous...
עמוד 568 - The excess, of the birth-rate has not the effect of raising the gemml' deathrate, bnt the contrary. tion. When the death-rate reaches a much higher pitch, the birth-rate no longer keeps pace with it ; the ratio of increase of population falls, and in unhealthy cities the death-rate exceeds the birth-rate, so the population, instead of increasing, decreases. Hence at this stage of the investigation we are justified in drawing the inference : the diminution of the mortality of England by sanitary improvement...
עמוד 568 - Experience proves the contrary ; the birth-rate and the deathrate by the providence of the people rise and fall together. It is evident on reflection that there is no necessary relation between the birth-rate and the death-rate. The rates may vary independently ; thus the death-rate, closely associated with the sickness-rate, may be raised by pestilence, war, or famine ; or it may be reduced inconceivably by hygienic and medical agencies. Except in the case of suicide, death is not a voluntary act....
עמוד 567 - ... therefore did not here imply a more rapid increase of population. This was not accidental. For if the districts are arranged in four groups according to the order of mortality, the same law is found to prevail in all. The death and the birth-rates were 0-0251 and 0-0381 ; 0-0220 and 0-0356; 0-0192 and 0-0322; 0-0167 and 0-0301. The four values of r on which the length of the periods of doubling the population depend were nearly the same ; they were 1*0130, 1-0136, 1*0130, i-oi34-§ Thus within...
עמוד 573 - Society. Health, strength, beauty, grace, wit, goodness, can all be approached nearer than they are by evolution, or as our excellent President prefers it, development. How much races can be improved by training we see in the shows of horticulture and agriculture; and shall see in due time in the assemblies of men ; when cities and villages alike enjoy pure air and water ; when labourers and artisans live in healthier dwellings ; when by improved machinery and by skill they earn higher wages; waste...
עמוד 568 - ... pitch, the birth-rate no longer keeps pace with it ; the ratio of increase of population falls, and in unhealthy cities the death-rate exceeds the birth-rate, so the population, instead of increasing, decreases. Hence at this stage of the investigation we are justified in drawing the inference : the diminution of the mortality of England by sanitary improvement is in no danger of multiplying men beyond the means of tubsittence.

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