תמונות בעמוד
PDF
ePub

thing dropt on the road was not picked up. There was no fraudulent carving of vessels. Inner coffins were made four inches thick, and the outer ones five. Graves were made on the high grounds, no mounds being raised over them, and no trees planted about them. Within twelve months, the princes of the States all about wished to imitate his style of administration.3

The duke Ting, surprised at what he saw, asked whether his rules could be employed to govern a whole State, and Confucius told hinn that they might be applied to the whole empire. On this the duke appointed him assistant-superintendent of Works, 4 in which capacity he surveyed the lands of the State, and made many improvements in agriculture. From this he was quickly made minister of Crime, 5 and the appointment was enough to put an end to crime. There was no necessity to put the penal laws in execution. No offenders showed themselves. 6

These indiscriminating eulogies are of little value. One incident, related in the annotations of Tso-k'ew on the Ts'un Ts'ew,7 commends itself at once to our belief, as in harmony with Confucius' character. The chief of the Ke, pursuing with his enmity the duke Ch'aou, even after his death, had placed his grave apart from the graves of his predecessors; and Confucius surrounded the ducal cemetery with a ditch so as to include the solitary resting place, boldly telling the chief that he did it to hide his disloyalty.8 But he signalized himself most of all, in B.C. 499, by his behaviour at an interview between the dukes of Loo and Tsée, at a place called Shih-k'e, 9 and Këə-kuh, 10 in the present district of Lae-woo, in the department of Tae-gan.1 Confucius was present as master of ceremonies on the part of Loo, and the meeting was professedly pacific. The two princes were to form a covenant of alliance. The principal officer on the part of Ts-e, however, despising Confucius as “a man of ceremonies, without courage,” had advised his sovereign to make the duke of Loo a prisoner, and for this purpose a band of the halfsavage original inhabitants of the place advanced with weapons to the

stage where the two dukes were met. Confucius understood 3 , Bk I. 4 This office, however, was held by the chief of the Mäng family. We must understand that Confucius was only an assistant to him, or perlaps acted for

5大司寇6家語, Bk I. 7左傳·定公元年 8家語 9 實其 10 谷 11 泰安府,莱森縣

him.

[ocr errors]

Bk I

the scheme, and said to the opposite party, “Our two princes : mnet for a pacific object. For you to bring a band of savage vass to disturb the meeting with their weapons, is not the way in whi Ts'e can expect to give law to the princes of the empire. The barbarians have nothing to do with our Great Flowery land. Su vassals may not interfere with our covenant. Weapons are out place at such a meeting. As before the spirits, such conduct unpropitious. In point of virtue, it is contrary to right. As betwe man and man, it is not polite.” The duke of Tse ordered the d turbers off, but Confucius withdrew, carrying the duke of Loo wi him. The business proceeded, notwithstanding, and when the wor of the alliance were being read on the part of Ts'e, —“So be it Loo, if it contribute not 300 chariots of war to the help of T: when its army goes across its borders," a messenger from Confuc added,—“And so be it to us, if we obey your orders, unless y return to us the fields on the south of the Wăn.” At the conclusi of the ceremonies, the prince of Ts'e wanted to give a grand enterta mient, but Confucius demonstrated that such a thing would be es trary to the established rules of propriety, his real object being keep his sovereign out of danger. In this way the two part separated, they of Ts'e filled with shame at being foiled and disgras by “the man of ceremonies," and the result was that the lands Loo which had been appropriated by Ts'e were restored. 12

For two years more Confucius held the office of minister of Cri Some have supposed that he was further raised to the dignity chief minister of the State, 13 but that was not the case. One instal of the manner in which he executed his functions is worth recordi When any matter came before him, he took the opinion of differ individuals upon it, and in giving judgment would say, “I dec according to the view of so and so." There was an approach to i jury system in the plan, Confucius' object being to enlist gene sympathy, and carry the public judgment with him in luis adminis tion of justice. A father having brought some charge against son, Confucius kept them both in prison for three months, with

13 The

12 This meeting at Kön-kuh is related in Sze-ma Ts'een, the Family Sayings, and Kukk with many exaggerations. I have followed to eat. says, Bk II., FL

Fate W. But he was a # only in the scu an assistant of ceremonies, as at the meeting iu këă-kull, described above,

« הקודםהמשך »