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continued. His great-grandson, the duke Min,3 was followed, B.c. 908, by a younger brother, leaving, however, two sons Fuh-foo Ho,4 and Fang-sze. Fuh Hof resigned his right to the dukedom in favour of Fang-sze, who put his uncle to death in B.C. 893, and became master of the State. He is known as the duke Le, and to his elder brother belongs the honour of having the sage among his descendants.

Three descents from Fuh Ho, we find Ching K'au-foo, who was a distinguished officer under the dukes Tae, Woo, and Seuen' (B.C. 799—728). He is still celebrated for his humility, and for his literary tastes. We have accounts of him as being in communication with the Grand-historiographer of the empire, and engaged in researches about its ancient poetry, thus setting an example of one of the works to which Confucius gave himself.10 K‘aou gave birth to K‘ung-foo Kea, 11 from whom the surname of Kóung took its rise. Five generations had now elapsed since the dukedom was held in the direct line of his ancestry, and it was according to the rule in such cases that the branch should cease its connection with the ducal stem, and merge among the people under a new surname. Kóung Kea was Master of the Horse in Sung, and an officer of well known loyalty and probity. Unfortunately for himself, he had a wife of surpassing beauty, of whom the chief minister of the State, by name Hwa Tuh,12 happened on one occasion to get a glimpse. Determined to possess her, he commenced a series of intrigues, which, ended, B.c. 709, in the murder of Kea and the reigning duke Shang: 13 At the same time, Tuh secured the person of the lady, and hastened to his palace with the prize, but on the way she had strangled herself with her girdle.

An enmity was thus commenced between the two families of K‘ung and Hwa which the lapse of time did not obliterate, and the latter being the more powerful of the two, Kea's great-grandson withdrew into the State of Loo to avoid their persecution. There he was appointed.commandant of the city of Fang, 14 and is known in history

see note 6.

3. 4ghi tros. 5 ltj (al. To je 6 I drop here the Ž (up. 20 tone), which seems to have been used in those times in a manner equivalent to our Mr. 7腐 8 Thij is used in the same way as

get it, E4 10. See the , and J 21 F ; quoted in Keang Yung's (I 1) Life of Confucius, which forms a part of the 13

11 FL XL 12 1 13 53

14 Bt.

by the name of Fang-shub.15 Fang-shuh gave birth to Pil-hea, 16 and from liim came Shub-leang Heili, li the father of Confucius. Heil appears in the history of the times as a soldier of great prowess and daring bravery. In the year B.C. 562, when serving at the siege of

place called Peili-yang, 18 a party of the assailants made their way in at a gate which had purposely been left open, and no sooner were they inside than the porteullis was dropped. leih was just entering, and catching the massive structure with both his hands, he gradually by dint of main strength raised it and held it up, till his friends had made their escape.

Thus much on the ancestry of the sage. Doubtless he could trace his descent in the way which has been indicated up to the imperial house of Yin, nor was there one among his ancestors during the rule of Chow to whom he could not refer with satisfaction. They had been ministers and soldiers of Sung and Loo, all men of worth, and in Ching Kaou, both for his humility and literary researches, Confucius might have special complacency. 2. Confucius was the child of Shul-leang Heili's old age.

Tle soldier had married in early life, but his wife brought him only

daughters, to the number of nine, and no son. first public employments. By a concubine he had a son, named Măngape

and also Pil-ne, who proved a cripple, so that, when he was over seventy years, Heih sought a second wife in the Yen family;? from which came subsequently Yen Hwuy, the favouitite disciple of his son. There were three daughters in the famil, the youngest being samed Ching-tsae. Their father said to them, “ Here is the commandant of Tsow. His father and grandfather were only scholars, but his ancestors before them were descendants of the sage emperors. He is a man ten feet high, and of extraordinary prowess, and I am very desirous of his alliance. Though he is old and austere, you need have no misgivings about him. Which of you

three will be his wife?" The two elder danghters were silent, but Ching-tsae said, “Why do you ask us, father? It is for you to determine.” “Very well,” said her father in reply, “you will do."

15 Bij te 16 伯夏 17 叔梁範 18 個陽 1孟皮一字伯尼·阅兵 3 Tik

徵在 4其人身長十尺 See, on the length of the ancient fout, Ana. VIII. vi., but the point needs a more sifting in restigao tion than it has yet received.

From his birth to his

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B.C. 551--531.

Ching-tsae, accordingly, became Heil's wife, and in due time gave birth to Confucius, who received the name of Kew, and was subseynently styled Chung-ne. The event happened on the 21st day of the 10th month of the 21st year of the duke Seang, of Loo, being the 20th year of the emperor Ling, B.C. 551. The birth-place was in the district of Tsow, of which Heih was the governor. somewhere within the limits of the preserit department of Yen-chow in Shan-tung, but the honour of being the exact spot is claimed for two places in two different districts of the department.

The notices which we have of Confucius' early years are very scanty. When he was in his third year his father died. It is related of

It was

5 51, #fie E. The legends say that Ching-teae, fcaring lest she should not have a son, in consequence of her husband's age, privately ascended the Ne-kóew hill to pray for the boon, and that when she had obtained it, she commemorated the fact in the names—Kew and Chung-ne. But the cripple, Mang-p'e, had previously been styled Pili-ne. There was some reason, previous to Confucius' birth, for using the term ne in the family. As might be expecteil, the birth of the sage is surrounded with many prodigious occurrences. One account is, that the husband and wite prayed together for a son in a dell of mount Ne. As Ching-tsae went up the hill, the leaves of the trees and plants all erected themselves, and bent (lownwards on her return. That night she dreamt the Black Te appeared, and said to her, “You shall have a son, a sage, and you must bring him forth in a hollow mulberry tree.' One day during her pregnancy, she fell into a dreamy state, and saw five old men in the hall, who called themselves the essences of the five planets, and led an aninal which looked like a small cow with one horn, and was covered with scales like a dragon. This creature knelt before Ching-tsae, and cast forth from its mouth a slip of gem, on which was the inscription,—“The son of the essence of water shall succeed to the withering Chow, and be a throneless king.' Ching-tsae tied a piece of embroidered ribbon about its horn, and the vision disappeared. When Heih was told of it, he said, “The creature must be the K'elin.' As her time drew near, Ching-tsac asked her husband if there was any place in the neighbourhood called “The hollow mulberry tree.' He told her there was a dry cave in the south bill, which went by that name. Then she said, 'I will go and be confined there.' ller husband was surprised, but when made acquainted with her former dream, he made the necessary arrangements. On the night when the child was born, two dragons came and kept watch on the left and right of the hill, and two spirit-ladies appeared in the air, pouring out fragrant odours, as if to bathe Ching-tsae ; and as soon as the birth took place, a spring of clear warm water bubbled up froin the floor of the cave, which dried up again when the child had been washed in it. The child was of an extraordinary appearance; with a mouth like the sca, ox lips, a dragon's back, &c., &c. On the top of his head was a remarkable formation, in consequence of which he was named K'ew, &c. See the 51 05, Bk. Ixxviii.—Sze-ma Ts'een seems to make Confncius to have been illegitimate

, saying that lleih and Miss Yen cohabited in the wilderness (FW). Keang Yung says that the phrase has reference simply to the disparity of their ages.

6 Sze-ma 'Ts'een says that Confucius was born in the 22d year of duke Seang, 1.c. 550. He is followed by Choo He in the short sketch of Confucius' lite prefixed to the Lun Yu, and by • The Annals of the Empire che le Att), published with imperial sanction in the reign of Kea-k-ing. (To this latter work I have generally referred for my dates.) The year assigned in the text above rests on the authority of Kuh-lëang and Kung-yany, the two commentators on the T's'un Tsew. With regard to the month, however, the 10th is that assigned by Kuli-lëang, while Kung-yang names the 11th, 7 Tšow is written R R E, and /.

him, that as a boy he used to play at the arrangement of sacrificial vessels, and at postures of ceremony. Of his schooling we have no reliable account. There is a legend, indeed, that at seven he went to school to Gan P'ing-chung, 8 but it must be rejected as P‘ing-chung belonged to the State of Ts'e. He tells us himself that at fifteen he bent his mind to learning ;' but the condition of the family was one of poverty. At a subsequent period, when people were astonished at the variety of his knowledge, he explained it by saying “ When I was young, my condition was low, and therefore I acquired my ability in many things; but they were mean matters."10

When he was nineteen, he married a lady from the State of Sung, of the Këen-kwan family,11 and in the following year his son Le was born. On the occasion of this event, the duke Ch'aou sent him a present of a couple of carp. It was to signify his sense of his prince's favour, that he called his son Le (The Carp), and afterwards gave him the designation of Pih-yul2 (Fish Primus). No mention is made of the birth of any other children, though we know, from Ana. V. i., that he had at least one daughter. The fact of the duke of Loo's sending him a gift on the occasion of Le's birth, shows that he was not unknown, but was already commanding public attention and the respect of the great.

It was about this time, probably in the year after his marriage, that Confucius took his first public employment, as keeper of the stores of grain, 13 and in the following year he was put in charge of the public fields and lands.14 Mencius adduces these employments in illustration of his doctrine that the superior man may at times take office on account of his poverty, but must confine himself in such a case to places of small emolument, and aim at nothing but the discharge of their humble duties. According to him, Confucius as keeper of stores, said, “My calculations must all be right:-that is all I have to care about;" and when in charge of the public fields, he said, “The oxen and sheep must be fat and strong and superior: that is all I have to care about."15 It does not appear whether 8晏平仲

11 娶宋之升官氏 12 F# 160 . 185. This is Mencius' account. Sze-na Ts'ten says É A Li, but his subsequent words ** show that the office

14 Mencius calls this office Fe 1., while Sze-wa Ts'cen says it 15 Mencius, V. Pt. II. v. 4.

9 Ana, II. iv,

10 Ana. IX. vi.

was the same.

Commencement of his

death of his mother. B.C. 530-526.

these offices were held by Confucius in the direct employment of the State, or as a dependent of the Ke family in whose jurisdiction he lived. The present of the carp from the duke may incline us to suppose the former.

3. In his twenty-second year, Confucius commenced his labours as a public teacher, and his house became a resort for young and enquiring spirits, who wished to learn the doctrines of antiquity.

However small the fee his pupils were able to labours as a teacher. The

afford, he never refused his instructions. All that he required, was an ardent desire for

improvement, and some degree of capacity. "I do not open up the truth,” he said, "to one who is not eager to get knowledge, nor help out any one who is not anxious to explain himself. When I have presented one corner of a subject to any one, and he cannot from it learn the other three, I do not repeat my lesson."2

His mother died in the year B.c. 528, and he resolved that her body should lie in the same grave with that of his father, and that their common resting place should be in Fang, the first home of the Kóung in Loo. But here a difficulty presented itself. His father's coffin had been for twenty years, where it had first been deposited, off the road of The Five Fathers, in the vicinity of Tsow :—would it be right in him to move it? He was relieved from this perplexity by an old woman of the neighbourhood, who told him that the coffin had only just been put into the ground, as a temporary arrangement, and not regularly buried. On learning this, he carried his

purpose into execution. Both coffins were conveyed to Fang, and put in the ground together, with no intervening space between them, as was the custom in some States. And now came a new perplexity. He said to himself, “In old times, they had graves, but raised no tumulus over them. But I am a man, who belongs equally to the north and the south, the east and the west. I must have something by which I can remember the place.” Accordingly he raised a mound, four feet high, over the grave, and returned home, leaving a party of his disciples to see everything properly completed. In the mean time there came on a heavy storm of rain, and it was a considerable time before the disciples joined him.

1 Ana. VII. vii.

2 Ana. VII. viii.

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