תמונות בעמוד

In the Writings of Seun K'ing, Book I. page 2, we find the words of Ana. XV. xxx; p. 6, those of XIV. xxv. In Book VIII. p. 13. we have the words of Ana. II. xvii. But in these three instances there is no mark of quotation.

In the Writings of Chwang, I have noted only one passage where the words of the Analects are reproduced. Ana. XVIII. v. is found, but with large additions, and no reference of quotation, in his treatise on "The state of Men in the world, Intermediate, "10 placed, that is, between Heaven and Earth. In all those Works, as well as in those of Lët and Mih, the references to Confucius and his disciples, and to many circumstances of his life, are numerous.11 The quotations of sayings of his not found in the Analects are likewise many, especially in the Doctrine of the Mean, in Mencius, and in the works of Chwang. Those in the latter are mostly burlesques, but those by the orthodox writers have more or less of classical authority. Some of thein may be found in the Kea Yu, 12 or“ Family Sayings," and in parts of the Leke, while others are only known to us by their occurrence in these Writings. Altogether, they do not supply the evidence, for which I am in quest, of the existence of the Analects as a distinct Work, bearing the naine of the Lun Yu, prior to the Ts'in dynasty. They leave the presumption, however, in favour of those conclusions, which arises from the facts stated in the first section, undisturbed. They confirm it rather. They show that there was abundance of materials at hand to the scholars of Han, to compile a much larger Work with the same title, if they had felt it their duty to do the business of compilation, and not that of editing.



1. It would be a vast and unprofitable labour to attempt to give a list of the Commentaries which have been published on this work. My object is merely to point out how zealously the business of interpretation was undertaken, as soon as the text had been recovered by the scholars of the Han dynasty, and with what industry it has been persevered in down to the present time.

10 ME 11 In Mih's chapter against the Literati, he mentions some of the characteristics of Confucius, in the very words of the 10th Book of the Analects. 12

2. Mention has been made, in Section I. 6, of the Lun of prince Chang, published in the half century before our era. Paou Heen, a distinguished scholar and officer, of the reign of Kwang-wo0,2 the first emperor of the Eastern Han dynasty, A.D. 25–57, and another scholar of the surname Chow,3 less known but of the same time, published Works, containing arrangements of this into chapters and sentences, with explanatory notes. The critical work of K‘ung Gan-kwo on the old Lun Yu has been referrell to. That was lost in consequence of suspicions under which Gan-kwó fell towards the close of the reign of the emperor Woo, but in the time of the emperor Shun, A.1). 126144, another scholar, Ma Yung,4 undertook the exposition of the characters in the old Lun, giving at the same time his views of the general meaning. The labours of Ch‘ing Heuen in the second century have been mentioned. Not long after his death, there ensued a period of anarchy, when the empire was divided into three governments, well known from the celebrated historical romance, called “The Three States.” The strongest of them, the House of Wei, patronized literature, and three of its high officers and scholars, Ch'in K'eun, Wang Suli, and Chow Shang-löě,5 in the first half, and probably the second quarter, of the third century, all gave to the world their notes on the Analects.

Very shortly after, five of the chief ministers of the Government of Wei, Sun Yung, Ch'ing Ch'ung, Tsaou He, Seun K'ae, and Ho An, 6 united in the production of one great Work, entitled, “A Collection of Esplanations of the Lun Yu."? It embodied the labours of all the writers which have been mentioned, and having been frequently reprinted by succeeding dynasties, it still remains. The preface of the five compilers, in the form of a memorial to the emperor, so called, of the House of Wei, is published with it, and has been of much assistance to me in writing these sections. Ho An was the leader among them, and the work is commonly quoted as if it were the production of him alone.

1包成?光武3周氏:4至順帝時,南郡太守,馬融亦 為之訓說,5 司農,陳韋太常,

王肅;博士,周生列光 祿大夫,關內侯孫邕;光祿大夫,郭冲;散騎常侍中領 軍安鄉亭侯曹義;侍中,荀頭:向書射馬都尉關內侯, 何晏:論語集解

3. From Ho An downwards, there has hardly been a dynasty which has not contributed its labourers to the illustration of the Analects. In the Leang, which occupied the throne a good part

of the sixth century, there appeared the “Comments of Wang Kóan,"s who to the seven authorities cited by Ho An added other thirteen, being scholars who had deserved well of the Classic during the intermediate time. Passing over other dynasties, we come to the Sung, A.D. 960–1279. An edition of the Classics was published by imperial authority, about the beginning of the 11th century, with the title of “ The correct Meaning" The principal scholar engaged in the undertaking was Hing P'ingThe portion of it on the Analects10 is commonly reprinted in “The Thirteen Classics," after Ho An's explanations. But the names of the Sung dynasty are all thrown into the shade by that of Choo He, than whom China has not produced a greater scholar. He composed, in the 12th century, three Works on the Analects:-the first called “ Collected Meanings,"ll the second, “Collected Comments ;"12 and the third, “Que. ries."13 Nothing could exceed the grace and clearness of his style, and the influence which he has exerted on the literature of China has been alınost despotic.

The scholars of the present dynasty, however, seem inclined to question the correctness of his views and interpretations of the Classics, and the chief place among them is due to Maou K'eling, 14 known by the nom de plume of Se-ho.15 His writings, under the name of “The collected Works of Se-ho,"16 have been published in 80 volumes, containing between three and four hundred books or sections. He has nine treatises on The Four Books, or parts of them, and deserves to take rank with Ch‘ing Heuen and Choo He at the head of Chinese scholars, though he is a vehement opponent of the latter. Most of his writings are to be found also in the Work called “A collection of Works on the Classics, under the Imperial dynasty of Ts'ing,"17 which contains 1,400 sections, and is a noble contribution by the present rulers of China to the illustration of its ancient literature.


皇侃論語疏,邪易 10 論語正義: 11 論語集義.12 論 語集註: 1.3 論語或围:14 毛奇 1. 西河 10 西河全集 17 皇清經解



In “The Collection of Supplementary Observations on The Four Books,"l the sccond chapter contains a general view of commentaries on the Analects, and from it I extract the following list of various readings of the text found in the comments of Ch‘ing Heuen, and referred to in the first section of this chapter.

Book II. i., £!! for #; viii., fine for f; xix., f# for ; xxiii. 1, + PT SH, without ty, for this in Book III. vii, in the clause it tot -, he makes a full stop at t ; xxi. 1, Ł for it. Book IV. x., nok for , and the for. Book V. xxi., he puts a full stop at Book VI. vii, he has not the characters I Book VII. ir, Fur #; xxxiv., F T simply, for FF M. Book IX. ix., 弃 for , Book XIL. for it, and it for S. Book XIII. iii

. 3, F for I; xvii, 1, 5 for 5. Book XIV. xxxi., for tj ; xxxiv. 1, for a tout #i 1 for fi stil # M. Book XV. 1. 2, * for 1 Book XVI. 1. 13, for #. Book XVII. i., for

IXİV. 2, for VW Book XVIII. iv., o for ; viii. 1, U for *

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These various readings are exceedingly few, and in themselves insignificant. The student who wishes to pursue this subject at length, is provided with the means in the Work of Teih (? Chih) heaou-show, expressly devoted to it. It forms sections 449–473 of the Works on the Classics, mentioned at the close of the last section.







1. It has already been mentioned that “The Great Learning" forms one of the Chapters of the Le Ke, or “Record of Rites,” the formation of the text of which will be treated of in its proper place. I will only say here, that the Book, or Books, of Rites had suffered much more, after the death of Confucius, than the other ancient Classics which had been collected and digested by him. They were in a more dilapidated condition at the time of the revival of the ancient literature under the Han dynasty, and were then published in three collections, only one of which—the Record of Rites-retains its place among the King.

The Record of Rites consists, according to the current arrangement, of 49 Chapters or Books. Lew Heang (see ch. I. sect. II. 2.) took the lead in its formation, and was followed by the two famous scholars, Tae Tih,i and his relative, Tae Shing. The first of these ! reduced upwards of 200 chapters, collected by Heang, to 89, and Shing reduced these again to 46. The three other Books were added in the second century of our era, The Great Learning being one of them, by Ma Yung, mentioned in the last chapter, section III. 2. Since his time, the Work has not received any further additions.

2. In his note appended to what he calls the chapter of “ Classical Text,” Choo He says that the tablets of the “old copies” of the rest of The Great Learning were considerably out of order. By those old copies, he intends the Work of Ch‘ing Heuen, who published his commentary on the Classic, soon after it was completed by the additions of Ma Yung; and it is possible that the tablets were in confusion, and had not been arranged with sufficient care; but such a thing

in 2 ms. Shing was the son of a cousin of Tih's.

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