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exempted as being a work on divination, nor did it extend to the other classics which were in charge of the Board of Great Scholars. It is still inore important to note that the burning took place only three years before the death of the tyrant who commanded it. Hle died B.C. 209, and the feeble reign of his second son, who succeeded him, lasted only three years.

A brief season of disorder and struggling between different chiefs for the supreme authority ensued, but the reign of the founder of the Han dynasty dates from B.C. 201. Thus, eleven years were all which intervened between the order for the burning of the Books and the rise of that family, which signalized itself by the care which it bestowed for their recovery; and from the edict of the tyrant of Ts'in against private individuals having copies in their keeping, to its express abrogation by the emperor Heaou Hwuy, there were only 22 years. We may believe, indeed, that vigorous efforts to carry the edict into effect would not be continued longer than the life of its author,—that is, not for more than about three years. The calamity inflicted on the ancient Books of China by the House of Ts'in could not have approached to anything like a complete destruction of them. There would be no occasion for the scholars of the Han dynasty, in regard to the bulk of their ancient literature, to undertake more than the work of recension and editing

9. The idea of forgery by them on a large scale is out of the question. The catalogues of Leang Hin enumerated more than 13,000 volumes of a larger or smaller size, the productions of nearly 600 different writers, and arranged in : 8 subdivisions of subjects.34 In the third catalogue, the first subdivision contained the orthodox writers, 35 to the number of 53, with 836 Works or portions of their Works. Between Vencius and Kóung Keih, the grandson of Confucius, eight different authors have place. The second subdivision contained the Works of the Taonist school,36 amounting to 993 collections, from 37 different authors. The sixth subdivision contained the Mihist writers, 37 to the number of 6, with their productions in 86 collections. I specify these two subdivisions, because they embraced the Works of schools or sects antagonist to that of Confucius, and some of them still hold a place in Chinese literature,

34 凡書六略,三十八種,五百九十六家萬三千二百 Śttus

vic 36 in 37 Foot

and contain many references to the five Classics, and to Confucius and his disciples.

10. The inquiry pursued in the above paragraplis conducts us to the conclusion that the materials from which the Classics, as they have come down to us, were compiled and edited in the two centuries preceding our Christian era, were genuine remains, going back to a still more remote period. The injury which they sustained from the dynasty of Ts'in was, I believe, the same in character as that to which they were exposed, during all the time of “the Warring States." It may have been more intense in degree, but the constant warfare which prevailed for some centuries among the different States which composed the empire was eminently unfavourable to the cultivation of literature. Mencius tells us how the princes had made away with many of the records of antiquity, from which their own usurpations and innovations might have been condemned.38 Still the times were not unfruitful, either in scholars or statesmen, to whom the ways and monuments of antiquity were dear, and the

space froin the rise of the Ts'in dynasty to Confucius was not very great. It only amounted to 258 years. Between these two periods Mencius stands as a connecting link. Born probably in the year 1.c. 371, he reached, by the intervention of Kóung Keih, back to the sage himself, and as his death happened B.C. 288, we are brought down to within nearly half a century of the Ts'in dynasty. From all these considerations we may proceed with confidience to consider each separate Work, believing that we have in these Classics and Books what the great sage of China and his disciples gave to their country more than 2,000 years ago.

38. See Mencius, V. Pt. II. ii. 2.

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FORMATION OF THE TEXT OF THE ANALECTS BY THE SCHOLARS

OF THE HAN DYNASTY.

1. When the work of collecting and editing the remains of the Classical Books was undertaken by the scholars of Han, there appeared two different copies of the Analects, one from Loo, the native State of Confucius, and the other from Tsée, the State adjoining. Between these there were considerable differences. The former consisted of twenty Books or Chapters, the same as those into which the Classic is now divided. The latter contained two Books in addition, and in the twenty Books, which they had in common, the chapters and sentences were somewhat more numerous than in the Loo exemplar.

2. The names of several individuals are given, who devoted themselves to the study of those two copies of the Classic. Among the patrons of the Loo copy are mentioned the names of Shing, the prince of Hea, grand-tutor of the heir-apparent, who died at the age of 90, and in the reign of the emperor Seuen (B.C. 72—48);' Seaou Wang. che, a general officer, who died in the reign of the emperor Yuen, (B.c. 47–32); Wei Heen, who was premier of the empire from B.C. 70-66; and his son Heuen-shing 3 As patrons of the Ts'e, copy, we have Wang K‘ing, who was a censor in the year B.C. 99 ;4 Yung Shang, and Wang Keih,6 a statesman who died in the beginning of the reign of the emperor Yuen.

3. But a third copy of the Analects was discovered about B.C. 150. One of the sons of the emperor King was appointed king of Loo,” in the year B.c. 153, and some time after, wishing to enlarge his palace, he proceeded to pull down the house of the K‘ung family, known as that where Confucius himself had lived. While doing so,

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1太子大傅夏侯勝:2前將軍,驚望之3丞相,韋賢,及 子,成4王卿5附生.6中尉王吉:7魯王共(or 恭

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