תמונות בעמוד

13, “Explanations of the Classics, under the Imperial dynasty of Ts-ing." See above, p. 20. The Work, however, was not published, as I have there supposed, by Imperial authority, but under the superintendence, and at the expense (aided by other officers), of Yuen Yuen (5 ), Governor-general of Kéwang-tung and k'wang-se, in the 9th year of the last reign, 1829. The publication of so extensive a Work shows a public spirit and zeal for literature among the high officers of China, which should keep foreigners from thinking meanly of them.

FLF, "Family Sayings of Confucius." Family is to be taken in the sense of Sect or School. In Lew Hin's Catalogue, in the subdivision devoted to the Lun Yu, we find the entry :-“Family Sayings of Confucius, 27 Books,” with a note by Yen Sze-koo of the T'ang dynasty,~"Not the existing Work called the Family Sayings." The original Work was among the treasures found in the wall of Confucius' old house, and was deciphered and edited by K‘ung Gan-kwo. The present Work is by Wang-suh of the Wei (EL) dynasty, grounded professedly on the older one, the blocks of which had suffered great dilapidation during the intervening centuries. It is allowed also, that, since Suh's time, the Work has suffered more than any of the acknowledged Classics. Yet it is a very valuable fragment of antiquity, and it would be worth while to incorporate it with the Analects. My copy is the edition of Le Yung (#), published in 1780.

Tieth E , “Sacrificial Canon of the Sage's Temples, with Plates.” This Work, published in 1826, by Koo Yuen, styled Seang-chow (TUT T * 41-6), is a very pains-taking account of all the Names sacrificed to in the temples of Confucius, the dates of their attaining to that honour, &c. There are appended to it Memoirs of Confucius and Mencius, which are not of so much value.

+F1, “The complete Works of the Ten Tsze." See Morrison's Dictionary, under the character F. I have only had occasion, in connection with this Work, to refer to the writings of Chwang-tsze (EF) and Lëč-tsze (Fil F). My copy is an edition of 1804.

te 2 * TIJ ki, “A Cyclopædia of Surnames, or Biographical Dictionary, of the Famous Men and Virtuous Women of the successive Dynasties." This is a very notable work of its class ; published in 1793, by il 10%, and extending through 157 chapters or Books.

文獻通考 « General Examination of Records and Scholars." This astonishing Work, which cost its author, Ma Tvan-lin (ulle

, twenty years' labour, was first published in 1321. Remusat say's-" This excellent Work is a library in itself, and if Chinese literature possessed no other, the language would be worth learning for the sake of reading this alone.” It does indeed display all but incredible research into every subject connected with the Government, History, Literature, Religion, de., of the empire of China. The author's researches are digested in 348 Books. I have had occasion to consult principally those on the Literary Monuments, embraced in 76 Books, from the 17th to the 249th.

** M “ A Continuation of the General Examination of Records and Scholars.” This Work, which is in 254 Books, and nearly as extensive as the former, was the production of Wang Ke (EI), who dates his preface in 1586, the 14th year of Wan-leil, the style of the reign of the 14th emperor of the Ming dynasty. Wang K'e brings down the Work of his predecessor to his own times. He also frequently goes over the same ground, and puts things in a clearer light. I have found this to be the case in the chapters on the classical and other Books.

=TE. “The twenty-three Histories.” These are the imperially-authorized records of the empire, commencing with the “ Historical Records,” the work of Sze-ma Ts'een, and ending with the History of the Ming dynasty, which appeared in 1742, the result of the joint labours of 145 officers and scholars of the present dynasty. The extent of the collection may be understood froin this, that my copy, hound in English fashion, makes fifty-five volumes, each one larger than this. No nation has a history so thoroughly digested; and on the whole it is trustwortlıy. In preparing this volume, my necessities have been confined mostly to the Works of Sze-ma Ts'cen, and his successor, Pan Koo (FEM), the Historian of the first Han dynasty.

het te kerc , “The Annals of the Empire." Published by imperial authority in 1803, the 8th year of Kea-k'ing. This Work is invaluable to a student, being, indeed, a collection of chronological tables, where every year froin the rise of the Chow dynasty, B.C. 1121, has a distinct column to itself, in which, in different compartments, the most important events are noted. Beyond that date,

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it ascends to the commencement of the cycles in the 61st year

of Hwang-te, giving-not every year, but the years thing has been mentioned in history. From Hwang-te also, it ascends through the dateless ages up to Piwan-koo, the first of mortals,

pe te tole “ The Boundaries of the Empire in the successive Dynasties.” This Work by the same author, and published in 1817, does for the boundaries of the empire the same service which the preceding renders to its chronology.



CONFUCIUS SINARUM PHILOSOPHUS; sive Scientia Sinensis Latine Exposita. Studio et opera Prosperi Intorcetta, Christiani Herdritch, Francisci Rougemont, Philippi Couplet, Patrum Societatis Jesu. Jussu Ludovici Vagni. Parisiis : MDCLxxxvii.

The Works of Confucius; containing the Original Text, with a Translation. Vol. I. By J. Marshman. Serampore: 1809.

The Four Books, Translated into English, by Rev. David Collie, of the London Missionary Society. Malacca : 1828.

L'INVARIABLE Milieu, Ouvrage Moral de Tseu-sse, en Chinois et en Mandchou, avec une Version litterale Latine, une Traduction Françoise, de, &c. Par M. Abel-Rémusat. A Paris: 1817.

LE TA Hio, ou La Grande ETUDE: Traduit en François, avec uve Version Latine, &c. Par G. Pauthier. Paris : 1837.

Y-King, Antiquissimus Sinarum Liber, quem ex Latina Interpretatione P. Regis, aliorumque ex Soc. Jesu PP. edidit Julius Mobl. 1839: Stuttgartiæ et Tubinga.

MEMOIRES concernant L'Histoire, Les Sciences, Les Arts, Les Merurs, Les Usages, &c., des Chinois. Par les Missionnaires de l'ekin. A Paris : 1776-1814.

HISTOIRE GENERALE DE LA CHINE; ou Annales de cet Empire, Traduites du Tong-hien-Kany- Mou. Par le feu Pere Joseph-AnnieMarie de Moyriac de Mailla, Jesuite François, Missionnaire a Pekin. A Paris: 1776-1785.

Notitia LINGUÆ SINICÆ. Auctore P. Premare. Malacca : cura Academia Anglo-Sinensis. MDcccxxxi.

Tue CHINESE REPOSITORY. Canton, China. 20 vols. 1832— 1851.

DictionNAIRE DES Noms, Anciens et Modernes, des Villes et Arrondissements de Premier, Deuxieme, et Troisieme ordre, compris dans L'Empire Chinois, &c. Par Edouard Biot, Membre du Conseil de la Societé Asiatique. Paris: 1842.

THE CHINESE. By John Francis Davis, Esq., F.R.S., &c. In two volumes. London: 1836.

China: its State and Prospeets. By W. H. Medhurst, D.D., of the London Missionary Society. London: 1838.

L'UNIVERS: Histoire et Description des tous les Peuples. Chine. Par M. G. Pauthier. Paris : 1838.

History of China, from the earliest Records to the Treaty with Great Britain in 1842. By Thomas Thornton, Esq., Member of the Royal Asiatic Society. In two volumes. London: 1844.

THE MIDDLE KINGDOM: A Survey of the Geography, Government, Education, Social Life, Arts, Religion, &c., of the Chinese Empire. By S. Wells Williams, LL.D. In two volumes. New York and London : 1818.

The RELIGIOUS CONDITION OF THE CHINESE. By Rev. Joseph Edkins, B. A., of the London Missionary Society. London: 1859.

CHRIST AND OTHER MASTERS. By Charles Hardwick, M.A., Christian Advocate in the University of Cambridge. Part III. Religions of China, America, and Oceanica. Cambridge: 1858.

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CHAPTER I. 1. The Master said, “Is it not pleasant to learn with a constant perseverance and application ?

2. “Is it not pleasant to have friends coming from distant quarters ?

3. “Is he not a man of complete virtue, who feels no discomposure though men may take no note of him? ? " TITLE OF THE WORK.

guided the compilers in grouping the chapters Discourses 語,

together. Others seem devoid of any such and Dialogues,' that is, the discourses or dis- principle of combination. The sixteen chapters cussions of Confucius with his disciples and of this book are occupied, it is said, with the others on various topics, and his replies to their fundamental subjects which ought to occupy the inquiries. Many chapters, however, and one attention of the learner, and the great matters whole book, are the sayings not of the sage himself, but of some of his disciples,

of human practice. The word Learn,

The characters may also be rendered Digested Con-rightly occupies the forefront in the studies of Fersations, and this appears to be the more a nation, of which its educational system has so ancient signification attached to them, the ac- long been the distinction and glory. count being, that after the death of Confucius,

1, THE WHOLE WORK AND ACHIEVEMENT OF his disciples collected together and compared THE LEARNER, FIRST the memoranda of his conversations which they had severally preserved, digesting them into the MINDED INDIVIDUALS, AND FINALLY COMPLETE IN twenty books which compose this work, Hence himself. 1. F at the commemcement indicates the title of Discussed Sayings,' or ' Di- | Confucius. F, a son,' is also the common desiggested Couversations. See on it Fri nation of males, especially of virtuous men,

We find it in conversations used in the same I have styled the work 'Con

way as our 'Sir'. When it follou's the surname, fucian Analects,' as being more descriptive of its it is equivalent to our "Mr, or may be rendered character than any other name I could think of. the philosopher', 'the scholar,''the officer,' &c. HEADING of this Book, iti

Often, however, it is better to leave it untrans

lated. When it precedes the surname, it indiThe two first characters in the book, after the

cates that the person spoken of was the master of introductory, "The master said, are actupted the writer, as FitF, 'my master, the philof the Jews, who name many books in the Bible ocopher VK? Standing single and alone as in from the first word in them. 第一 “The

the text, it denotes Confucius, the philosopher, or, first;' that is, of the twenty books composing rather, the master. If we render the term by the whole work. In some of the books we find a ('onfucius as all preceding translators have done, unity or analogy of subjects, which evidentiy we miss the indication which it gives of the


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