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遠言園節行美為 子亦恥可有之知小貴有部

日 辱復子亦和 大 君宗也也日不而由王日 子也因恭信可和之之禮 食 不近近行不有道之

失於於也。以所斯用 其禮義 禮不為和


CHAPTER XII. The philosopher Yew said, “In practising the rules of propriety, a natural ease is to be prized. In the ways prescribed by the ancient kings, this is the excellent quality, and in things small and great we follow them.

2. “Yet it is not to be observed in all cases. If one, knowing how such ease should be prized, manifests it, without regulating it by the rules of propriety, this likewise is not to be done.

CHAPTER XIII. The philosopher Yew said, “When agreements are made according to what is right, what is spoken can be made good. When respect is shown according to what is proper, one keeps far from shame and disgrace. When the parties upon whom a man leans are proper persons to be intimate with, he can make them his guides and masters."

CHAPTER XIV. The Master said, “He who aims to be a man of complete virtue, in his food does not seek to gratify his appetite,

12. IS CEREMONIES A NATURAL EASE IS TO BE 13. TO SAVE FROM FUTURE REPENTANCE WB PRIZED, AND YET TO BE SUBORDINATED TO THE MUST BE CAREFUL IN OUR FIRST STEPS. A diff. END OF CEREMONIES,-THE REVERENTIAL OBSERV view of the scope of this ch. is taken by Ho An. ANCE OF PROPRIETY. is not easily rendered It illustrates, according to him, the difference

between being sincere and righteousness, bein another language. There underlies it the tween being respectful and propriety, and how idea of what is proper. It is $21, 'the fit a man's conduct may be venerated. The later ness of things,' what reason calls for in the per

view commends itself, the only difficulty being formance of duties towards superior beings, and with iI HA, 'near to,' which we must accept between man and man. Our term “ceremonies' comes near its meaning here. is here a

as a meiosis for AF, -agreeing with the name for Tee, as indicating the courses or ways 3d tone, to keep away from. The force of the

=), a covenant," an agreement. Il up. to be pursued by men. In sit uŹ +='he can go on to make them his masters, the antecedent to 之 is not 和, but 禮 being taken as an active verb. 1.2. Obs. the force of the , also,' in the


14. WITH WHAT MIND ONE AIMING TO BE A last clause, and how it affirms the general prin- KECN-TSZE PURSUES HIS LEARNING. ciple enunciated in the first paragraph.

be well, even luxuriously, fed and lodged, but

He may



正面 而飽 賜 云也

好也而子為慎 , 其如禮

禮未無貢可於 切者 若驕日謂言求

貧何資好就安 與謂

樣学崙崙學著敏 與。如

『樂子無也道於 詩子球白富白韶己。而事


nor in his dwelling place does he seek the appliances of ease; he is earnest in what he is doing, and careful in his speech; he frequents the company of men of principle that he may be rectified: -such a person may be said indeed to love to learn.

CHAPTER XV. I. Tsze-kung said, “What do you pronouncc concerning the poor man who yet does not flatter, and the rich man who is not proud ?” The Master replied, “They will do; bnt they are not equal to him, who, though poor, is yet cheerful, and to him, who, though rich, loves the rules of propriety."

2. Tsze-kung replied, “It is said in the Book of Poetry," " As you cut and then file, as you carve and then polish.'—The meaning is the same, I apprehend, as that which you have just expressed."

3. The Master said, “With one like Tsze, I can begin to talk about the Odes. I told him one point and he knew its proper sequence. with his higher aim these things are not his, it smooth, or a lapidary whose hammer and seeking, # #. A nominative to

smoothing and polishing. She-king, I. v. I. st. must be supposed, -all this, or such a person. The 2. In the antecedent to closing particles, give emphasis to the preceding sentence,=yes

is the passage of the ode, and that to

斯 is the OF THE SUCCESSIVE reply of Confucius. Ź see Premare, p been poor, and then did not cringe. He became 156. 3. Intorcetta and his co-adjutors translate rich and was not proud. He asked Confucius tbis par. as if U were in the 20 pers. But about the style of char. to which he had attain the Chin. Comm. put it in the 3d, and correctly. ed. Conf. állowed its worth, but sent him to Premare, on the char. H, says, "Fere semper higher attainments. ito here="and yet? To adjungitur nominibus propriis

. Sie in libro Lux #p, 'what as?'='what do you say—what is Yu

, Confucius loquens de suis discipulis l'erm, to be thought—of this?” Obs. the force of the Keon, Hoei, vel ipsos alloquens, dicit the #, 'not yet? 2. The ode quoted is the first of ulo H. With the example in III

. the songs of Wei (1), praising the prince 17, before us, it is not to be denied that the Woo, who had dealt with himself as an ivory- name before #is sonnetimes in the 24 pers., worker who first cuts the bone, and then files but generally it is in the 3d, and the force of the


知知之感 知諸 人患不患子 來往 也。不已人日者。而告


CHAPTER XVI. The Master said, “I will not be afflicted at men's not knowing me; I will be afflicted that I do not know men.' th=quorud. U tu, quoed Tsze. Z # CHIEF AIM, Comp. ch. 1. p. 3. Obs. the transnearty=也已, in ch. 14. 已, the final part.

position in 2 411, which is more elegant than (sue Prem, p. 185), is thus marked with a tone, e would be. E, “self,' the person deto distinguish it from £, -self,' as in next ch. / pending on the context. We cannot translate The last clause may be given-Tell him the

*do not be afflicted,' because Ti is not used past, and he knows the future,' but the connection determines the meaning as in the transition imperatively, like 7). A nominative to

患 , as in ch. 10, is a particle, a mere 吾 th, has to be assumed,- , 'I,' or # F. the as it is called, a helping' or supporting sound. superior man.'




之泉其北德鑫 星所)

政子 共而 了居如以日

CHAPTER I. The Master said, “He who exercises government by means of his virtue, may be compared to the north polar star, which keeps its place and all the stars turn towards it.”

HEADIse of This Book.一為政第二 於心, the practice of truth and acquisition This second book contains twenty four chapters, thereof in the heart' Choo's view of the comand is named JÁ ES, “The practice of govern- parison is that it sets forth the illimitable

influence which virtue in a ruler exercises withment.' That is ihe object to which learning, out his using any effort. This is extravagant. treated of in the last book, should lead, and His opponents say that virtue is the polar star, here we have the qualities which constitute, and the various departments of government the and the character of the men who administer, other stars, This is far-fetched. We must be good government.

content to accept the vague utterauce without 1. THE INFILE ENCE OF VIRTUE IN A RULER. | minutely determining its meaning. 北辰 is, the is explained by 1, but the old comm. say no doubt, “the north polar star,' anciently be

lieved to coincide exactly with the place of the 物得以生謂之德, what creatures get in order to their birth is called their virtue, real pole. # is up. 21 tone, used for ##, 'to while Chvo lu makes it F M T W respectfully towards.

fold the hands in saluting;' here='to turn

立。而圖之無齊 邪言

區志子以耶之子 十于白禮道以日

、 而學。吾有之刑道 不三十恥以民之 惑。十有且德免以 五而五格齊而政 政

言以蔽之日思無 第三子日詩三百一

CHAPTER II. The Master said, “In the Book of Poetry are three hundred pieces, but the design of them all may be embraced in one sentence—'Have no depraved thoughts.”

CHAPTER III. 1. The Master said, “If the people be led by laws, and uniformity sought to be given them by punishments, they will try to avoid the punishment, but have no sense of shame.

2. "If they be led by virtue, and uniformity sought to be given them by the rules of propriety, they will have the sense of shame, and moreover will become good.”

CHAPTER IV. 1. The Master said, “At fifteen, I had my mind bent on learning

2. “At thirty, I stood firm.
3. “At forty, I had no doubts.




selves.' Obs. the diff. of Land To in p. 1. Poetry. The number of compositions in the Sine-king is rather more thaun the round number | 而='but;且='moreover. here given. 一言=一句, 'one sentence.'




Chin. comm. are 蔽-蓋, to cover, to embrace. 思無邪,

perplexed with this ch. Holding of Confucius sce She-king, IV. ii

. 1. st. 4. The sentence there that in I 2,5 in TT , the is indicative, and in praise of the duke He, who had no depraved thoughts. The sage would was born with knowledge, and did what was seem to have been intending his own design in right with entire ease, they say that he here compiling the She. Individual pieces are cal conc·als his sagehood, and puts himself on the culated to have a diff. effect.

level of common men, to set before them a 3. How RULEIS SHOULD PREFER MORAL AP- i stimulating example. We may believe that 1.

the compilers of the Analects, the sage's imme as in I. 5. Źthem,' ref. 道

diate disciples, did not think of him so extravato Ę, below. Ej, as oppos. to pili, =laws gantly as later men have doue. It is to le

wished, however, that he had been more definite and prohibitions. Th, corn earing evenly;' and diffuse in his account of himself. 1. # bence, what is level, equal, adjusted, and here in low. 3d tone,='and.' The learning.' in with the corresponding verbal force. Et, which, at lö, Cont. gave himself, is to be under. “The people will avoid,' that is, avoid breaking stood of the subjects of the ‘Superior Learning.' the laws thro, fear of the punishment. 2. to 186. 2. The 'standing firu probably indicates has the signif. of “to come to,' and 'to correct,' that he no more needed to bend his will. X. from either of which the text may be explained, The ‘no doubts' may have been concerning -'will come to goool,' or 'will correct then what was proper in all circumstances ar?


以禮謂對已無黨欲耳十 禮。死也已孟達。孟不順。



以何我之日 所而



4. “At fifty, I knew the decrees of heaven.

5. “At sixty, my ear was an obedient organ for the reception of truth.

6. “At seventy, I could follow what my heart desired, without transgressing what was right”.

CHAPTER V. Măng E asked what filial piety was. The Master said, “It is not being disobedient.'

2. Soon after, as Fan Ch'e was driving him, the Master told him, saying, “Măng-sun asked me what filial piety was, and I answered him, — not being disobedient.”

3. Fan Ch'e said, “What did you mean?” The Master replied, , "That parents, when alive, should be served according to propriety; that, when dead, they should be buried according to propriety; and that they should be sacrificed to according to propriety. events. 4. “The decrees of Heaven,'=the things princely descent, and fibi her the T and making what was proper to be so. 5. The became the respective surnames of

the as intuition the truth from the ear. 6. ke,

the families. 14

仲孫 was changed into the instrument for determining the square. 7. Le by the father of Mang E, on a principle

of humility, as he thereby only claimed to be 15, without transgressing the square.' the eldest of the inferior sons or their repres5. FILIAL PIETY MUST BE SHOWN ACCORDING entatives, and avoided the presumption of a great officer of the state of Loo, by name seeming to be a younger full brother of the Ho-ke (TUT E.), and the chief of one of the

reigning duke. 懿 mild and virtuous,' was three great families by which in the time of the posthumous honorary title given to Ho-ke. Conf . the authority of that state was grasped. On F, see I. 1.1. Fan, by name

須,aud Those families were descended from three brothers, the sons by a concubine of the duke

designated 子遲, was a minor disciple of Hwan (B. C. 710-693), who were distinguished the sage. Conf. repeated his remark to Fan, at first by the prenomens of fib, tal, and that he might report the explanation of it to To these was subsequently added the

his friend Mang E, or Mang-sun, and thus

prevent him from supposing that all the sage character to "grandson,' to indicate their intended was disobedience to parents.



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