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成 使子 於









2. "Perfect virtue is the burden which he considers it is his to sustain ;—is it not heavy? Only with death does his course stop;is it not long?”

CHAPTER VIII. 1. The Master said, “It is by the Odes that the mind is aroused.

2. “ It is by the Rules of propriety that the character is established. .

3. “It is from Music that the finish is received."

CHAPTER IX. The Master said, “The people may be made to follow a path of action, but they may not be made to understand it.”

CHAPTER X. The Master said, “The man who is fond of daring and is dissatisfied with poverty, will proceed to insubordination. So will the man who is not virtuous, when you carry your dislike of him to an extreme." man,' a scholar,' but in all ages learning has Choo He the first 之理之所當然,一 been the qualification for, and passport to, official employment in China, hence it is also a duty, what principles require, and the second is general designation for 'an officer.' 12, low. Ź FIT BLYA, 'the principle of duty.' 3. tone, a noun,=an office," a burden borne;' He also takes oT and PJ as=and with the 1st tone, it is the verb “to bear.'

8. THE EFFECTS OF POETRY, PROPRIETIES, AND TE: If the meaning were so, then the MUSIC. These three short sentences are in form sentiment would be much too broadly expressed. like the four, FA Ý, &c., in VII. 6, but Sce 14 XVI. 15. As often in must be interpreted differently. There the first terin in each sentence is a verb in the impera- other places, the at gives the meaning here tive mood; here it is in the indicative. There happily ; viz., that a knowledge of the reasons the # is to be joined closely to the 1st charac and principles of what they are called to do ter and here to the 3d. There it=our prepos

. 10; need not be required from the people, -70 og here it=by. The terms 詩,禮樂, have 責之民 all specific reference. 9. WHAT MAY AND WHAT MAY NOT PE AT



道有下道圓不圓 富道有危子易子已 且貧道邦日得日 貴且則不篇也三 且如 為賤見人信 年 各有 耶焉無亂好 也。耶道弗學 也則不守

隐居死 無邦天善


美使驕且客其餘不足 中雪子日如有周公之才之

CHAFTER XI. The Master said, “Though a man have abilities as admirable as those of the duke of Chow, yet if he be proud and niggardly, those other things are really not worth being looked at."

CHAPTER XII. The Master said, “It is not easy to find a man who has learned for three years without coming to be good."

CHAPTER XIII. 1. The Master said, “With sincere faith he unites the love of learning; holding firm to death, he is perfecting the excellence of his course.

2. "Such an one will not enter a tottering state, nor dwell in 8 disorganized one. When right principles of government prevail in the empire, he will show himself; when they are prostrated, he will keep concealed.

3. “When a country is well governed, poverty and a mean condition are things to be ashamed of. When a country is ill governed, riches and honour are things to be ashamed of.”

the whole a lamentation over the rarity of the “The duke of Chow ;-gee VII. disinterested pursuit of learning. But we are

not at liberty to admit alterations of the test, 6. I the overplus,” “the superfluity, unless, as received, it be absolutely unintel! referring to the “talents,' and indicating that


13. THE QUALIFICATIONS OF AN OFFICBR , ability is not the 本 or root of character, not

WHO WILL ALWAYS ACT RIGHT IN ACCEPTING what is essential. # E, as in ch. 1.

AND DECLINING OFFICE. 1. This par. is to be

taken as descriptive of character, the effects of 12. How QUICKLY LEARNING LEADS TO GOOD.

whose presence we have in the next, and of its This is the interpretation of Kóung Gan-kwă, absence in the last. 2. in oppos. to who takes it in the sense of #Choo He real heen, low. 3d tone. The whole chcem takes the term in the sense of The emolu- feeling. In fact, I doubt whether its parts bear meut,' and would change into the making posed to have.

the relation and connection which they are sop




失之 F因子日巍巍乎舜禹之



不而 雖

其政 了日不在其位不謀

CHAPTER XIV. The Master said, “He who is not in any particular office, has nothing to do with plans for the administration of its duties.”

CHAPTER XV. The Master said, “When the music-master, Che, first entered on his office, the finish with the Kwan Ts'eu was magnificent;-how it filled the ears !"

CHAPTER XVI. The Master said, “Ardent and yet not upright; ; stupid and yet not attentive; simple and yet not sincere :-such persons I do not understand.”

CHAPTER XVII. The Master said, “Learn as if you could not reach your object, and were always fearing also lest you should lose it."

CHAPTER XVIII. The Master said, “How majestic was the manner in which Shun and Yu held possession of the empire, as if it were nothing to them!” 14. EVERY MAN SHOULD MIND AIR OWN BUSI


A LAMENTATION OVER MORAL ERROR XRS9. So the sentiment of this ch. is gener

吾不知之, alized by the paraphrasts, and perhaps correctly. Its letter, however, has doubtless oper. I do not know them,' that is, say comm., naated to prevent the spread of right notions about tural defects of endowment are generally assopolitical liberty in China.

ciated with certain redeemning qualities, as has

In the 15. THE PRAISE OF THE MUSIC-MASTER Che. tiness with straightforwardness, &c. Neither Morrison nor Medhurst gives what ap- parties Conf. had in view, those redeeming qua

He did not understand pears to be the meaning of all in this ch. them, and could do nothing for them. K'ang-he's dict. has its ZEE

17. WITH WHAT BARN BSTNESS AND CONTIN01. The last part in the musical services is UOUSNESS LEARNING SHOULD BE PURSUED. called lwan. The programme on those occa- 18. THE LOFTY CHARACTER OF SHUN AND sions consisted of four parts, in the last of which Yu. Shun received the empire from Yaon, B. C. a number of pieces from the fung or national 2254, and Yu received it from Shun, B. C. 2204. songs was sung, commencing with the Kwan- The throne came to them not by inheritance. ts'ex. The name hwan was also given to a sort They were called to it by their talents and of refrain, at the end of each song.—The old virtue. And yet the possession of empire did interpreters explain differently, music-master Che first corrected the confusion not affect them at all. -'It did not of the Kwan-ts'eu,' &c.

concern them,' was as if nothing to them. Ho or his wife, is much disputed. 3. Instead of


之日 臣其巍荡乎
際才 : 予 五 有乎蕩唯
為其臣天 成無大
盛然十下 功能唯


十九章子日大哉堯之為君 有天下也而不與焉

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CHAPTER XIX. 1. The Master said, “Great indeed was Yaou as a sovereign! How majestic was he! It is only Heaven that is grand, and only Yaou corresponded to it. How vast was his virtuel The people could find no name for it.

2. “How majestic was he in the works which he accomplished ! How glorious in the elegant regulations which he instituted!”

CHAPTER XX. 1. Shun had five ministers, and the empire was well governed.

2. King Woo said, “I have ten able ministers.'

3. Confucius said, “Is not the saying that talents are difficult to find, true? Only when the dynasties of T'ang and Yu met, were they more abundant than in this of Chow, yet there was a woman among them. The able ministers were no more than nine men. An takes $1=*- They had the empire ministers were , superintendent of works, without seeking for it. This is not according the superintendent of agriculture, FL (oët,

19. THE PRAISE OF YA00. 1. No doubt, minister of instruction, A, minister of object of admiration, but if Confucius had

had justice, and 14 , warden of woods and mara right knowledge of, and reverence for, Hea- shes. Those five, as being eminent above all ven, he could not have spoken as he does here. Grant that it is only the visible heaven over

their compeers, are mentioned. 2. See the Shoospreading all, to which he compares Yaou, even king, V. i. sect. ii. 6. LE ‘governing, that is sufficiently absurd. W Ź, not sim- | i. e., able ministers. In the dict., the first ply= , imitated it,' but I Ź meaning given of al is 'to regulate,' and the

second is just the opposite, - to confound," , 'could equalize with it. 2. Inte confusion of the ten ministers, the most dis h=# For H Ź o sh, the great One of them, it is said next par., was a woman, achievements of his goverment. * (see but whether she was the mother of king Wan V. 12)=the music, ceremonies, &c., of which he

to usage.

the usual “the master said,' we have here 20. TIE SCARCITY OF MEN OF TALENT, AND PRAISE OF THE HOUSE OF Cuow: 1. Shun's tive FE, "The philosopher K‘ung said." This

Wils the author, ,

然力 力平鬼矣 謂服三有 矣平散菲子至事分婦

溝冕惡 飲 殷天人 (第 拿不 衣食

下焉、 吾之有九 致無矣。德其人 致 間 盡美乎

以 已。



4. "King Wăn possessed two of the three parts of the empire, and with those he served the dynasty of Yin. The virtue of the house of Chow may be said to have reached the highest point indeed."

CHAPTER XXI. The Master said, “I can find no flaw in the character of Yu. He used himself coarse food and drink, but displayed the utmost filial piety towards the spirits. His ordinary garments were poor, but he displayed the utmost elegance in his sacrificial cap and apron. He lived in a low mean house, but expended all his strength on the ditches and water-channels. I can find nothing like a flaw in Yu.” is accounted for on the ground that the words of nothing in him to which I can point as a flaw. king Woo having been quoted immediately be. This interpreted of the spirits of heaven fore, it would not have done to crown the sage with his usual title of the Master.' The style and earth, as well as those sacrificed to in the of the whole chapter, however, is different from ancestral temple, but the saying that the rich that of any previous one, and we may suspect offerings were filial (7) would seem to restrict that it is corrupted. + is a sort of pro- the phrase to the latter. The was an apron verb, or common saying, which Conf. quotes made of leather, and coming down over the and illustrates. (Yaou is called

knees, and the T'ang, having ascended the throne from the

見 was a sort of cap or crown, marquisate of that name, and Yu became the flat on the top, and projecting before and be

hind, with a long fringe on which gems and accepted surname or style of Shun.) # #

pearls were strung. They were both used in y is understood by Choo He as in the sacrificing. Yin, generally the water-chantransl., while the old comm. take exactly the nels by which the boundaries of the fields were opposite view. The whole is obscure. 4. This determined, and provision made for their irrigapar. must be spoken of King Wăn.

tion, and to carry off the water of floods. The 21. Tus Praise of Yv. 15), read Kien, up. were 4 cubits wide and deep, and arranged 3d tone, “a crevice," "a crack' E 19

so as to flow into the which were double ***, 'In Yu, I find no crevice 80,' i. e., I fiúd | the size.

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