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之稿有國日 日則敢 敢嘗得也

。也 喬爾諸子 可抑子 久于子疾唯 矣。上路病。弟

「子子 神日路

路不已厭
祇有請能 矣。仁

之稿學 人
日誌子 也。
丘日日 華倦

量子日若聖與仁則吾豈

也躬行君子則吾未之有

may simply

CHAPTER XXXIII. The Master said, “The sage and the man of perfect virtue;-how dare I rank myself with them? It be said of me, that I strive to become such without satiety, and teach others without weariness." Kung-se Hwa said, “This is just what we, the disciples, cannot imitate you in.”

CHAPTER XXXIV. The Master being very sick, Tsze-loo asked leave to pray for him. He said, “May such a thing be done?" Tsze-loo replied, "It may. In the Prayers it is said, “Prayer has been made to the spirits of the upper and lower worlds. " The Master said, “My praying has been for a long time.

3. WHAT CONFVclub DECLINED TO BE CON- rather to be an expletive than the pronoun. BIDERED, AND WHAT HE CLAIMED. 若 物上下-heaven and earth, being the are said to be correlatives, in which case they= approp. desig. of the spirits of the former, and our "althougb' and 'yet.' More naturally, we

Tilt of the latter.—Choo He says, “ Prayer is may join #directly with all and

the expression of repentance and promise of take up 8.sour but: 云 see ch. 18, 2. amendment, to supplicate the help of the spirits

. 已矣, added to 云爾, increakes to em

If there may not be those things, then there is phasis,='just this and nothing more.'

no need for praying. In the case of the sage,

he had committed no errors, and admitted of no 34. CONFUCIUS DECLINES TO BE PRAYED FOR.

amendment. In all his conduct he had been in rogether mean “very sick. harmony with the spiritual intelligences, and is interrogative, as we find it frequently in therefore he said,—my praying has been for a Mencius. 'To write a eulogy, and confer long time. We may demur to some of these the posthumous honorary title ;' also, to eulo expressions, but the declining to be prayed for, gize in prayer,' i. e., to recite one's excellencies and concluding remark, do indicate the satisfacas the ground of supplication. Tsze-loo must tion of Confucius with himself. Here, as in have been referring to some well known collec- other places, we wish that our information tion of such prayers. D禱商,爾 about him were not so stinted and fragmeptary.

seems

而安
威而不猛恭
世子温而園

坦蜀 與

荡子固。其孫子 戚荡日不做日

小君 孫則奢 人

也固則

CHAPTER XXXV. The Master said, “Extravagance leads to insubordination, and parsimony to meanness. It is better to be mean than to be insubordinate.

CHAPTER XXXVI. The Master said, “The superior man is satisfied and composed; the mean man is always full of distress.

CHAPTER XXXVII.' The Master was mild, and yet dignified; majestic, and yet not fierce; respectful, and yet easy. 35. Meanness NOT SO BAD AS INSUBORDINA- | level plain' used adverbially with .='lightread shun, like it, and with the same

somely. This is its force here. Fr, meaning. 36. CONTRAST IN THEIR FEELINGS BETWEEN 'constantly.'

37. How VARIOUS ELEMENTS MODIFIED OND THE KEUN-TSZE AND THE MEAN MAN. 坦a

ANOTHER IN THE CHARACTER OF CONFUCIUS,

TIOX.

BOOK VIII. T'AE-PIH.

而民天矣德可泰 稱無 也謂伯子第泰 焉得讓以至其日入伯

天下讓

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CHAPTER I. The Master said, “T'ae-pih may be said to have reached the highest point of virtuous action. Thrice he declined the empire, and the people in ignorance of his motives could not ex. press their approbation of his conduct. THE HEADING OF THIS BOOK.- 泰伯第

1. THE EXCEEDING VIRTUE OF T'AE-PIH. T'ae1, 'T'ze-pih, Book eighth.' As in other cases, the grandfather of wan, the founder of the

pih was the eldest son of king T'ae to), the first words of the book give name to it. The Chow dynasty. T'ae had formed the intention subjects of the chapter are miscellaneous, but it of upsetting the Yin dyn., of which Tae-pih begins and ends with the character and deeds disapproved. T'ae moreover, because of the of ancient sages and worthies, and on this account it follows the seventh chapter, where we

Sage virtues of his grandson Chang(昌), who have Confucius himself described.

afterwards became king Wăn, wished to baud

門蘭民仁於禮禮禮禮 弟會不故親則則

則則則 子子偷舊則被亂菌 日 1有 不民君直 胶疾 遺興子而而而 予召 則於篤無

[graphic]

禮則勞慎而無 第二學日恭而無

CHAPTER II. 1. The Master said, “Respectfulness, without the rules of propriety, becomes laborious bustle; carefulness, without the rules of propriety, becomes timidity; boldness, without the rules of propriety, becomes insubordination; straightforwardness, without the rules of propriety, becomes rudeness.

2. “When those who are in high stations perform well all their duties to their relations, the people are aroused to virtue. When old friends are not neglected by them, the people are preserved from meanness.

CHAPTER III. The philosopher Tsăng being sick, he called to him the disciples of his school, and said, “ Uncover my feet, uncover my

hands. It is said in the Book of Poetry, We should be apprehensive and cautious, as if on the brink of a deep gulf, as if treading on thin ice,' and so have I been. Now and hereafter, I know my escape from all injury to my person, O ye, my little children." down his principality to his 3d son, Ch'ang's 2. THE VALOR OF THE RULES OF PROPRIETY ; father. T'ae-pih observing this, and to escape AND OF EXAMPLE IN THOSE IN HIGH STATIONS. 1. opposing his father's purpose, retired with his We must bear in mind that the ceremonies, or second brother among the barbarous tribes of rules of propriety, spoken of in these books, are the south, and left their youngest brother in not mere conventionalities, but the ordinations possession of the state. The motives of his of man's moral and intelligent nature in the conduct Tae-pih kept to himself, so that the line of what is proper. et "to strangle,' is here people in Z, 'could not find how to praise him. There is a difficulty in making

explained by Chow He by J. Ho An, after out the refusal of the empire three times, there Ma Yung (early part of 2d century), makes it being different accounts of the times and ways =), sarcasm. 2. There does not seem in which he did so. Choo He cuts the knot, by any connection between the for. paragraph and making 'thrice'='firmly,' in which solution we may acquiesce. There is as great difficulty to be a new chap., and assigned to the philosopher

this, and hence this is by many considered to withdrawing from the petty state of Chow. It Tsång. # F, diff. here from its previous may be added that king Woo, the first emperor of the Chow dyn., subsequently conferred on Tae- usage, having reference more to the te pih the posthumous title of Chief of Woo station of the individuals indicated, than to ()

, the country to which he had withdrawn, their friend or virtue. # and whose rude inhabitants gathered round old ministers and old intimacies' lf, often him. His second brother succeeded him in the government of them, and hence the ruling house

a verb, to steal ;' here an adj., 'mean.' of Woo had the same surname as the imperial

3. THE PHILOSOPHER Tsang's FILIAL PIETT

We get our house of Chow, that namely of Tsze (F). See bodies perfect from our parents, and should so VII. 30. # E$ give emphasis to the branch of filial picty with the Ch., and this ch. ceding,declaration. Comp. I. 14.

is said to illustrate how Tsăng-tsze had made

or

SEEN IN HIS CARE OF HIS PERSOX.

有氣慢貴

貴人子圖吾

矢 乎之言會知 存遠 上 道將日子 免洲

死鳥

烏有 夫:
“倍色 其之疾小

孟子。
變近容 敬
豆信貌言 其
之矣斯君
事出遠子
則辭暴所

所哀會 後如

臨深淵如 足啟予手詩云戰戰兢兢如

冰而今而

三飾

二節

CHAPTER IV. 1. The philosopher Tsăng being sick, Mang King went to ask how he was.

2. Tsăng said to him, “When a bird is about to die, its notes are mournful; when a man is about to die, his words are good.

3. “There are three principles of conduct which the man of high rank should consider specially important:~that in his deportment and manner he keep from violence and heedlessness; that in regulating his countenance he keep near to sincerity; and that in his words and tones he keep far from lowness and impropriety. As to such matters as attending to the sacrificial vessels, there are the proper officers for them." this his life-long study. He made the disci. / refers to 2., in F, inuncover his hands and feet to show them in

timates that Tsăng commenced the conversation. what preservation those members were. 詩云

3. 動,正, and 出 are all verbs governing -e the Sheking, L. v.0.6. In 而今, must take ito. The whole clause indi

the nouns following. F is read like 74, and

with the same meaning, 'to rebel against,' 'to cates, comm. say, not so much Tsăng's satis

be contrary to,' that here opposed being Ý faction in the preservation of his person, as the anxiety which he had had, and would continue

the truth and right.' was a bamboo dish with to have, if life were prolonged, in preserving it. a stand, made to hold fruits and seeds at sacrifice; 4. THE PHILO8OPHER THANG'S DYING COUNSELS

豆 was like it, and of the saine size, only made TO A MAN OF HLGH RANK. 1. Make was the hon.

of wood, and used to contain pickled vegetables epi. of 11 For a great officer of Loo, and Ho An's compilation, the three clauses, begin,

君子 is used as in ch. 2. In son of Mang-woo, II. 6. From the conclusion of this chapter, we may suppose that he de

斯遠, are taken differently, and="thus he scended to small matters below his rank. Ź sulting, &c., &c. I prefer the modern view.

will not suffer from men's being violent and in.

we

and sauces.

毅靈君節狐醫從虛以 任會子而 會事犯多會 重子人以子於而問

日也。可 斯不於日 道士 奪百 矣。校寡以 遠不 也里以 昔有能

君之託 者若問 以以

吾無於 人

友實不 弘 與大之 嘗若能

CHAPTER V. The philosopher Tsăng said, “Gifted with ability, and yet putting questions to those who were not so; possessed of much, and yet putting questions to those possessed of little; having, as though he had not; full

, and yet counting himself as empty; offended against, and yet entering into no altercation :—formerly I had a friend who pursued this style of conduct."

CHAPTER VI. The philosopher Tsang said, “Suppose that there is an individual who can be entrusted with the charge of a young orphan prince, and can be commissioned with authority over a state of a hundred le

, and whom no emergency however great can drive from his principles:-is such a man a superior man? He is a superior man indeed.”

CHAPTER VII. 1. The philsopher Tsăng said, “The scholar may not be without breadth of mind and vigorous endurance. His burden is heavy and his course is long. 6. THE ADMIRABLE SIMPLICITY AND FREEDOM of six cubits' is here equivalent to 'of 15 years,

and that for every cubit more or less we should Tsano. This friend is supposed to have been addor deduct five

years. See the # Yen Yuen. tante, 'imprisonment by means of where it is also said that the ancient cubit was wood,''stocks. The Dict., after the old interpr., shorter than the modern, and only=7.4 in, 50 explains it with reference to this passage, by that 6 cubits=4.44 cubits of the present day. Jý t. t'altercation,” “recompensing. But this estimate of the ancient cubit is probu

bly still too high. King Wăn, it is said, was TWT, lit., 'followed things in this io cubits high, * i. e., 7.4 modern cubits or mere

than & English feat. 百里之命

Men. V. ii. 2. 67 amounts nearly to a question, a . R 六尺之孤,

and is answered by H.-Yes, indeed." • an orphan of six cubits.' By a comparison of a passage in the Chow Le and other references to the subject, it seems to be established that PASS AND VIGOUR OF MIND.

FROM EGOTISM OF A FRIEND OF THE PHILOSOPHER

way.'

6. A COMBINATION OF TALENTS AND VIRTUE CONSTITUTING A KEUN TSZE.

7. THE NECESSITY TO THE SCHOLAR OF COX

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