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至矣乎民鮮外 七子日中庸之為德也其


子以 子 可逝子 日厭 二

見禮日也日 民中之。 日南亦君也。

久之 所予以
矣。為 否路

者 F;
天說 - 文 欺



rior man may be made to go to the well, but he cannot be made to go down into it. He may be imposed upon, but he cannot be befooled.”

CHAPTER XXV. The Master said, “The superior man, exten. sively studying all learning, and keeping himself under the restraint of the rules of propriety, may thus likewise not overstep what is right.”

CHAPTER XXVI. The Master having visited Nan-tsze, Tsze-loo was displeased, on which the Master swore, saying, “Wherein I have done improperly, may Heaven reject me! may Heaven reject me!”

CHAPTER XXVII. The Master said, “Perfect is the virtue which is according to the Constant Mean! Rare for a long time has been its practice among the people.” comm. that he wished to show that benevolence 26. CONFUCIUS VINDICATES HIMSELF FOR VISIT

ING THE UNWORTHY NAN-TSZE. Nan-tsze wag was impracticable. It belongs to the whole fol

the wife of the duke of Wei, and sister of prince lowing clause, especially to the mention of a well. Chaou, mentioned ch. 14. Her lewd character The second Eis for 1. I-indicate was well known, and hence Tsze-loo was dis. some doubt in Go's mind. Obs. the hophal force pleased, thinking an interview with her was

disgraceful to the Master. Great pains are of iter and

taken to explain the incident. “Nan-tsze,' says 25. THX HAPPY EFFECT OF LEARNING AND one, ‘sought the interview from the stirrings of

her natural conscience.' 'It was a rule,' says an# F has here its other. " that officers in a state

should visit the lighter meaning,='the student of what is right prince's wife.' Nan-tsze,' argues a third, 'had and true. The Ź in Math we naturally all influence with her husband, and Confucius

wished to get currency by her means for his docrefer to , but comparing IX. 10, 2— #trine. Whether - We may assent to the observa, that

sense of 'to swear, '= , or “to make a declara我指已身 'I refers to the learner's

tion'=P*, is much debated. Evidently, the person.' See note on IV. 23. PL, "the boundary thing is an oath, or solemn protestation against of a field;' then, “to overstep that boundary? the suspicions of Tsze-loo. ##, as in V. 26, but the force here is more


in Confucius' Times. See W. .


is to be understood in the



仁之方也已 七人能近取壁言可

胃達 諸聖日何

日何施 夫乎何如 能人仁堯事可

己者舜於謂 欲己其仁仁 達欲猶必乎 立病也



CHAPTER XXVIII. 1. Tsze-kung said, “Suppose the case of a man extensively conferring benefits on the people, and able to assist all, what would you say of him? Might he be called perfectly virtuous ?” The Master said, “Why speak only of virtue in connection with him? Must he not have the qualities of a sage? Even Yaou and Shun were still solicitous about this.

2. “Now the man of perfect virtue, wishing to be established himself, seeks also to establish others; wishing to be enlarged himself, he seeks also to enlarge others.

3. “To be able to judge of others by what is nigh in ourselves ;this may be called the art of virtue. '

28. THE TRUE NATURE AND ART OF VIRTUE. of Yaou and Shun. From such extravagant There are no higher sayings in the Analects views the Master recalls him. 2. This is the than we have here. 1. biti

, up 3d tone, “to con- description of ETŰ the mind fer benefits. L- is said to be 'a of the perfectly virtuous man’ as void of all sel

fishness. 3. It is to be wished that the idea particle of doubt and uncertainty, but it is rather the interrogative affirmation of opinion. intended by AE T I had been more Tsze-kung appears to have thought that great clearly expressed. Still we seem to have here doings were necessary to virtue, and propounds a near approach to a positive enunciation of & case which would transcend the achievements the golden rule.'



能學 倦學 我信
從之 - 何而

不 日7 不日彭。
善講德 厭黑 古述
不聞之我而 霧而
能義不哉。人識 比不
收不偏、 不之 於作


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CHAPTER I. The Master said, “A transmitter and not a maker, believing in and loving the ancients, I venture to compare myself with our old P'ang.'

CHAPTER II. The Master said, “The silent treasuring up of knowledge; learning without satiety; and instructing others without being wearied :—what one of these things belongs to me?"

CHAPTER III. The Master said, “The leaving virtue without proper cultivation; the not thoroughly discussing what is learned; not being able to move towards righteousness of which a knowledge is gained; and not being able to change what is not good :-these are the things which occasion me solicitude.” HEADING OF THIS BOOK. TO ŁA 34 tone, “to remember. Źrefers, it is said, to transmitter, and this book much information of a personal chara, 'principles,' the subjects of the silent obacter about Confucius, both from his own lips, servation and reflection. Tos #### and from the descriptions of his disciples. The two preceding books treat of the disciples and

cannot be what difficulty do these occasion other worthies, and here, in contrast with them,

me?" but-何者能有於我,as in we have the sage himself exhibited.

the transl. “The language,' says Choo He, 'is 1. CONFUCIUS DISCLAIMS BEING AN ORIGINA- that of humility upon humility.' Some insert,

述一傳舊而已, simply | in their expl. 此外 before 何-Jiesides to hand down the old. Comm. say the master's these, what is there in me?' But this is quite language here is from his extreme humility. arbitrary. The profession may be inconsistent But we must hold that it expresses his true with what we find in other passages, but the sense of his position and work. Who the indi- inconsistency must stand rather than violence vidual called endearingly 'our old P'ang' was, be done to the language. Ho An gives the sincan hardly be ascertained. the view that he was a worthy officer of the gular exposition of inte (about A. D. Shang dynasty. But that individual's history is 150—200)— Other men have not these things, I a mass of fables. Others makeť to be

only have them.'

3. CONFUCIUS' ANXIETY ABOUT HIS SELF-CULLaou-tsze, the founder of the Taou sect, and TIVATION:-ANOTHER HUMBLE ESTIMATE OF HIMothers again make two individuals, one this SELF. Here again, comm, find only the expresLaou-tsze, and the other that B TAL

sions of humility, but there can be no reason why 2. CONFUCIUS' HUMBLE ESTIMATE OF HIM

we should not admit that Confucius was anxious

lest these things, which are only put forth as PRIX 識 here by most scholars read che, up. possibilities, should become in his case actual



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. 矣
於志 吾甚

仁於 X 不
A 於據 夢:




CHAPTER IV. When the Master was unoccupied with business, his manner was easy, and he looked pleased.

CHAPTER V. The Master said, “Extreme is my decay. For a long time, I have not dreamed, as I was wont to do, that I saw the duke of Chow.'

CHAPTER VI. 1. The Master said, “Let the will be set on the path of duty.

2. “Let every attainment in what is good be firmly grasped. 3. “Let perfect virtue be accorded with.

4. “Let relaxation and enjoyment be found in the polite arts. facts. is in the sense explained in the Dict. 6. ROLES FOR THE FULL MATURING OF CHAR. by the terms and practising,' 'ex- ACTER. 2. With might be translated virtue, but amining.'

F='perfect virtue' following, we require an4. THE MANNER OF CONFUCIUS WHEN UNOCCUPIED. The first clause, which is the subject other term. 4. tif, 'to ramble for amusement, of the other two, is literally—The master's dwelling at ease. Obs. The, up. 3d tone; #

here='to seek recreation.'

see note on

in I. 6. A full enumeration makes six arts,' up. 1st tone ; #A, as in III, 23.

viz., ceremonies, music, archery, charioteering, 5. How THE DISAPPOINTMENT OF Confucius' the study of characters or language, and figures

周公 or arithmetic. The ceremonies were ranged in (Chow-kung) is now to all intents a proper name, five classes : lucky or sacrifices, unlucky or the but the characters mean the duke of Chow.' mourning cer., military, those of host and Chow was the name of the seat of the family guest, and festive. Music required the study of from which the dynasty so called sprang, and the music of Hwang-te, of Yaou, of Shun, of on the enlargement of this territory, king Wan | Yu, of T'ang, and of Woo. Archery had a fivedivided the original seat between his sons fold classification. Charioteering had the same. (Tan) and (Shih). Tan was Chow kung, in mination of them, to determine whether there wisdom and politics, what his elder brother, the predominated in their formation resemblance to first emperor, Woo, was in arms. Confucius the object, combination of ideas, indication of had longed to bring the principles and institu- properties, a phonetic principle, a principle of tions of Chow-kung into practice, and in his contrariety, or metaphorical accommodation

. earlier, years, while hope animated him, had Figures were managed according to nine rules

, often dreamt of the former sage. The orig. ter

as the object was the measurement of land, ca. ritory of Chow was what is now the dis. of K'e pacity, &c. These six subjects were the busishan (UiB LLI), dep. of Fung-tseang ( ), but we need not suppose that Conf. had them

ness of the highest and most liberal education, in Sben-se.

All in view here.



日假 側题三 子哭 子 隅

又發 顏 於 則舉

淵 |歌。也有 藏日 子喪復偶

) 不調 惟用 於 者也不敗焉。 我之 是之 以不



上吾未嘗無誨焉 真七子日自行束脩


CHAPTER VII. The Master said, “From the man bringing his bundle of dried flesh for my teaching upwards, I have never refused instruction to any one.

CHAPTER VIII. The Master said, “I do not open up the truth to one who is not eager to get knowledge, nor help out any one who is not anxious to explain himself. When I have presented one corner of a subject to any one, and he cannot from it learn the other three, I do not repeat my lesson.”

CHAPTER IX. i. When the Master was eating by the side of a mourner, he never ate to the full.

2. He did not sing on the same day in which he had been weeping.

CHAPTER X. 1. The Master said to Yen Yuen, “When called - to office to undertake its duties; when not so called, to lie retired 1 -it is only I and you who have attained to this.”

7. THE READINESS OF CONFUCIUS TO IMPART he did not teach where his teaching was likely INSTRUCTION. It was the rule anciently, that to prove of no avail. 18, in the comm. and carry some present or offering with him. Pupils dict., is explained the To # did 80 when they first waited on their teacher. Of sach offerings, one of the lowest was a 貌: 'the appearance of one with mouth wishbundle of 16, dried flesh.” The wages of ing to speak and yet not able to do so. This

being the meaning, we might have expected teacher are now called the money of the character to be fyt. 'to turn,' is exthe dried flesh.' However small the offering tion of a wish to lears, and he imparted his for mutual

testimony: 77-71T brought to the sage, let him only see the indica plained 2*, 'going round instructions. E, may be translated “upwards,' i. en 'to such a man and others with FT , 'I tell him nothing more.

' larger gifts, E being up. 2d tone, or the char. The weeping is understood to be on occasion of may be understood in the sense of attending offering his condolences to a mourner, which my instructions,' with its usual tone. I prefer was a rule of propriety.' the former interpretation.

10. THE ATTAINMENTS OF HwOY LIKE THOSE 8. ConfuciuS REQUIRED A REAL DESIRE AND OF CONFUCIUS. THE EXCESSIVE BOLDNESS OF the sage's readiness to teach, this shows that Tsze-zoo. 1. In # Z. Z. Z is ex


ABILITY IX HIS DISCIPLES. The last ch. tells of

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