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而務有亂上矣犯孝其 道本也者而不上弟為 生本君未好好者而人 孝立

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ARE THE FOUNDATION OF ALLVIRTUOUS PRACTICE.

CHAPTER II. 1. The philosopher Yew said, “They are few who, being filial and fraternal, are fond of offending against their superiors. There have been none, who, not liking to offend against their superiors, have been fond of stirring up confusion.

2. “The superior man bends his attention to what is radical. That being established, all practical courses naturally grow up. handiwork of his disciples, and the reverence

on's Dictionary, char. F Its opposite is of which it bespeaks for him. But in the old com

1, a small, mean, man,' #1, “M-n mentators, is explained by zijn, 'to read chant- do not know him,' but anciently some explainingly,''to discuss.' Choo IIc interprets it by

cd - men do not know,' that is, are stupid un

der his teaching. The interpretation in the *to imitate,' and makes its results to be u

text is doubtless the correct one. 善而復初, the understanling of all

2. FILIAL PIETY AND FRATERSAL SUBMISSION excellence, and the bringing back original goodness'. Subsequent scholars profess, for the most

1. Yew, named #, and styled F # part, great admiration of this explanation. It is an illustration, to my mind, of the way in

and F#, a native of fi,

was famed which Choo He and his followers are continually among the other disciples of Confucius for his being wise above what is written in the classic- strong memory, and love for the doctrines of al books. * is the rapid and frequent motion antiquity. In personal appearance he resembled of the wings of a bird in flying, used for “to re

the sage. Sce Mencius, V. iv. 13. F is peat', 'to practise.' Ź is the obj. of the third

Yew, the philosopher,' and he and Tsang Tsan

(see ch. 4) are the only two of Confucius discipers. pronoun, and its antecedent is to be found ples who are mentioned in this style in the in the pregnant meaning of this ex

Lun Yu. This has led to an opinion on the

part of some, that the work was compiled by plained by the P, • is it not?' See Y their disciples. This is not sufficiently support ili E ME To bring out the force of “al

ed, but I have not found the peculiarity pointed

out satisfactorily explained. The tablet of so’in thi, some say thus :-“The occasions for

Yew's spirit is now in the same apartment

of the sage's temples as that of the sage pleasure are many, is this not ulso one?' , read himself

, occupying the 6th place in the

To this yuě, as always when it has the 4th tone marked, position it was promoted in the 3d year of stands for Mt. What is learned becomes by prac- K-cen-lung of the present dynasty. A degree tice and application one's own, and hence arises of activity enters into the meaning of in complacent pleasure in the mastering mind.

M as distinguished from this, wli, in the next 2 1 ="playing the man,' “as men, showing par., is the internal, individual

, feeling of pleas- themselves filial,' &c. , here to be ure, and the other, its external manifestation, submissive as a younger brother,' is in the low. implying also companionship. 2. J}, proper- 3d tone. With its proper signification, it was ly, fellow-students,' but generally, individuals anciently in the 20 tone. =and yet,' differof the same class and character, like-minded.

ent from its simple conjunctive use="and,' in 3. IF I translate here--a man of complete the pre. ch. 17 a verb, 'to love,' in the up. 3d virtue.' Literally, it is-'a princely man.' See

tone, diff. from the same char. in the 2d tone, F above. It is a technical term in Chin.

an adj.='good.' Wifi

, up. 2d tone,='seldom,' moral writers, for which there is no exact cor

'few. The same char, up. Ist tone,='fresh. On respondency in English, and which cannot be relesed always in the same war. Ser Morris. the idiom # t see Premare's gram. p.

on

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乎友不身吾七言

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Filial piety and fraternal submission !-are they not the root of all benevolent actions?"

CHAPTER III. The Master said, “Fine words and an insinuating appearance are seldom associated with true virtue."

CHAPTER IV. The philosopher Tsăng said, “I daily examine myself on three points;—whether in transacting business for others, I may have been not faithful?:—whether in intercourse with friends, 1

may have been not sincere?:—whether I may not have mastered and practised the instructions of my teacher?" 156. 2. # F has a less intense meaning here GUILTY OF ANY IMPOSITION. Tsang, whose name than in the last chap. I translate—“The , (Ts'an, now comnoniy read Sin,) and superior man,' for want of a better term. # his designation F, was one of the prineipal *the root,' what is radical,' is here said of filial | disciples of Confucius. A follower of the sage and fraternal duties, and , 'ways'or “courses,' ability to some others, by his filial piety and

from his 16th year, though inferior in natural of all that is intended by TETTE, below. other moral qualities, he entirely won the

Master's esteem, and by persevering attention The particles to resume the discourse mastered his doctrines. Confucius employed about and introduce some further him in the composition of the # **, descriptiou of them. See Prem., p. 158. Mrt, "Classic of Filial Piety. The authorship of the in the low. Ist tone, is half interrogative, an

AB, Superior Learning,” is also ascribed to answer in the affirmative being implied.

him, though incorrectly, as we shall see. Ten

books, morcover, of his composition are preexplained here as the principle of love,' 'the served in the Le Ke. His spirit tablet among the virtue of the heart.? Mencius says Et sage's four assessors, occupying the first place

on the , of ut, £is man,' in accordance with

to read Sing, “to examine.' = 4 is naturally which Julien translates it by humanitas. Be

understood of three times,' but the context and nevolence often comes near it, but, as has been said before of # F , cannot give a

intepretation on three points.' *, 'the body,' uniform rendering of this term. 3. FAIR APPEARANCES AND SCspicious. IT

‘one's personality;' *f=myself. is in A see Shooking, II. iii. 2. I5, “skill low. 34 tone, “for.' So, frequently, below: in workmanship,' then 'skill,' 'cleverness," sener- from *, 'middle,' 'the centre,' and 1, 'the ally, and sometimes with a bad meaning as heart,'=loyalty, faithfulness, action with and here,='artful,''hypocritical.' *a law,” “an from the heart. NN, see ch. l. , 'two hands order,' also ‘good,' and here like It, with a joined,' denoting union. Il te friends.? bad meaning,='pretending to be good.' is very enigmatical. The transla“the manifestation of the feelings in the colour of the countenance,' is here used for the appear- 1

tion follows Choo lle. fit explained ance generally.

quite differently:-whether I have given 4. HOW THE DISCIPLE Tsang DAILY EXAMIN- instruction in what I had not studied and

BEING practised?' It does seem more correct to take

is

consent of commentators make us assent to the

we

ED HIMSELF TO GUARD

AGAINST

HIS

力色 有孝 國 事 子餘愛 要 敬子 君父夏力泉 日人 能母白則而弟弟使而道 致能賢以親謹子民信千 其賢學仁而入以節乘 身其易文。行信則時。用之

CHAPTER V. The Master said, "To rule a country of a thousand chariots, there must be reverent attention to business, and sinceri. ty; economy in expenditure and love for men; and the employment of the people at the proper seasons.

CHAPTER VI. The Master said, “A youth, when at home, should be filial, and, abroad, respectful to his elders. He should be earnest

and truthful. He should overflow in love to all, and cultivate the V friendship of the good. When he has time and opportunity, after

the performance of these things, he should employ them in polite studies."

CHAPTER VII. Tsze-hea said, “If a man withdraws his mind from the love of beauty, and applies it as sincerely to the love of the virtuous; if, in serving his parents, he can exert his utmost

actively, 'to give instruction,' rather than 1 F, “younger brothers and song,' taken togethpassively

, íto receive instruction. See 14 er,=youths, a youth. The 20 sis for the 政錯, xv. 17.

in ch. 2. , , coming in, going out,'=at 5. FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES FOR THE GOV.

道 is used for 導,

home, abroad. il is explained by Choo He

by , wide,” - widely;' its proper meaning is "to rule' 'to lead,' and is marked in the 3d tone, to distinguish it from Č, which was anciently the rush or overflow of water. 7J, strength," read with the 2d tone. It is diff. from here embracing the idea of leisure. It is in which refers to the actual business of govern- literary studies merely, but all the accomplish ment, while he is the duty and purpose thereof, archery, horsemanship, writing, and numbers.

SRNMENT OF A LARGE STATE.

not

ments of a gentleman also: ceremonies, musie, apprehended by the prince. The standpoint of 7. TsaE-HEA'S VIEWS OF THE SUBSTAYTE OF the principles is the prince's mind. Te, in low.

Tsze-hea was the designation of 3d tone, (a chariot,' diff. from its meaning in

lo háj, another of the sage's distinguistud the 1st tone, to ride.' A country of 1000 char- disciples, and now placed 5th in the eastern range lots is one of the largest fiets of the Empire, of the wise ones. He was greatly famed for which could being such an armament into the his learning, and his views on the She King and field. The last principle, 14 E, the Chóun Ts'ew are said to be preserved in the means that the people should not be called from comm. of £, and of 4 # j ander their husbandry at improp. seasons, to do service on military expeditions and public works.

Dt. He wept himself blind on the death of 6. RULES FOB THE TRAINING OF THE YOUNG:

his son, but lived to a great age and was much DUTY FIRST AND THEN ACCOMPLISEMENTS.

esteemed by the people and princes of the time. * With regard to the scope of this chapter, there

LEARNING,

二節

一節

遠 己 士

I Fei
者。忠不 之
過信。威 日學

學 歸日則無學君矣。未交 厚慎勿友則子 學言 矣。終慣

追收。如 固。重 有

信雖日未學吾必 與朋友交言而有

strength; if in serving his prince, he can devote his life; if, in his intercourse with his friends, his words are sincere:--although men say that he has not learned, I will certainly say that he has.

CHAPTER VIII. The Master said, “If the scholar be not grave, he will not call forth any veneration, and his learning will not be solid.

2. “Hold faithfulness and sincerity as first principles.
3. “Have no friends not equal to yourself.
4. "When you have faults, do not fear to abandon them."

CHAPTER IX. The disciple Tsăng said, “Let there be a careful attention to perform the funeral rites to parents, and let them be followed when long gone with the ceremonies of sacrifice;-then the virtue of the people will resume its proper excellence.” is some truth in what the comm. Woo

,, says, F has here its lightest meaning=a Student, —that Tsze-hea's words may be wrested to des one who wishes to be a Keun-lsze. FLO, preciate learning, while those of the Master in the prec. ch, hit exactly the due medium. The of the Han dynasty, took , in the sense of 2 is a concrete noun. Written iu full, obscured," "dulled,' and interprets, Let him But, it is composed of the characters for a min- ceived interpretation, as in the transl., is better. ister, loyal, and a precious shell. It conveys the

} as a verb, “to hold to be chief.' It is ideas of talents and worth in the concrete, but it is not easy to render it uniformly by any one

often used thus. 3. The object of friendship, term of another language. The ist is a verb, knowledge and virtue;-- hence this seemingly

with Chinese moralists, is to improve one's ="to treat as a hecne has a diff. meaning from that in the 3d ch. Here it means “sensual pleasure.' Literally rendered, the first sentence would be,“ esteeming properly the virtuous, and changing the love of woman,” and great

-AN ADMONITION or Tsang Sin. *, 'the end,' fault is found by some, –as in 19 ET A# -death, and i, distant,' have both the force XVI. 1, with Choo He's interpretation which of adjectives,="the dead,' and 'the departed,' or I have followed, but there is force in what his “the long gone and it mean, “to be careadherents say, that the passage is not to be understood as if the individual spoken of had ever ful of,” “to follow, but their application is as in been given to pleasure, but simply signifies the the translation. , thick,' in opposition to sincerity of his love for the virtuous. Et here , 'thin,' metaphorically=good, excellent. The , 'to give to,' 'to devote.

force of 'to return' is to shew that this 8. Prisciples of SELF-CULTIVATION. 1. virtue is naturally proper to the people.

2.

selfish maxim.

9. THE GOOD EFFECT OF ATTENTION ON THE PART OF PRINCES TO THE OFFICES TO THE DEAD:

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以貢政

至子

父之道可謂孝矣

觀行三年無改於
子曰父在觀其志父

諸異乎人之求之與
以得之夫子之求之也
貢日夫子溫良恭

與也子 求恭之必貢

險與聞 且。 也讓子其夫

THEIR INFLUENCE ON THE PRINCES OF THE TIME.

CHAPTER X. 1. Tsze-k'in asked Tsze-kung, saying, “When our master comes to any country, he does not fail to learn all about its government. Does he ask his information? or is it given to him?”

2. Tsze-kung said, “Our master is benign, upright, courteous, temperate, and complaisant, and thus he gets his information. The Master's mode of asking information —is it not different from that of other men?”

CHAPTER XI. The Master said, “While a man's father is alive, look at the bent of his will; when his father is dead, look at his conduct. If for three years he does not alter from the way of his father, he may be called filial.” 10. CHARACTERISTICS OF CONFUCIUS, AND

mon designation for a teacher or master. 是 1. Tsze-kin, and Tsze-krang (元) are desig- #3, “this country'=any country. iya, 'must,' nations of 陳元 one of the minor disciples does not fail to. The antecedent to both the of Confucius. His tablet occupies the 28th Ź is the whole clause . Obs. of his brother, his wife and major-domo wished often a preposition, 'with,' 'to,' and A1 low, A good story is related of him. On the death the diff. in Bil , up. 20 tone,="to give,' and to bury some living persons with him to serve him in the regions below. The thing being re Ist tone, as in ch. 2. 2. The force of the ferred to Tsze-kóin, he proposed that the wifə and steward should themselves submit to the well enough expressed by the dash in English, immolation, which made them stop the matter. the previous t, indicating a pause in the disTsze-kung, with the double surname 端木,

-

course, which the 1, 'it,' resumes. and named U, occupies a higher place in the

行 is in the low.34 Confucian ranks, and is now placed 3d on the east , among the wise ones'. He is conspicuous tone

, explained by TT , 'traces of walking, in this work for his readiness and smartness in=conduct. It is to be understood that the way reply, and displayed on several occasions prac of the father had not been very bad. An old tical and political ability. *, 'a general desig- interpr. that the three years are to be under

stood of the three years of mourning for the nation for males,'=a man. 夫子, com- father, is now rightly rejected.

11. ON FILIAL DUTY.

9

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