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19. There is a great course also for the production of wealth. Let the producers be many and the consumers few. Let there be activity in the production, and economy in the expenditure. Then the wealth will always be sufficient.

20. The virtuous ruler, by means of his wealth, makes himself more distinguished. The vicious ruler accumulates wealth, at the expense of his life.

21. Never has there been a case of the sovereign loving benevolence, and the people not loving righteousness. Never has there been a case where the people have loved righteousness, and the affairs of the sovereign have not been carried to completion. And never has there been a case where the wealth in such a State, collected in the treasuries and arsenals, did not continue in the sovereign's possession.

22. The officer MSng Heen said, "He who keeps horses and a carriage does not look after fowls and pigs. The family which

GB, which K'ang-shing thinks should be in the text. Chlng E (gg) would substitute J^,

'idle,' instead of wires, and Choo He does not know which suggestion to prefer. Lo Chungf:in stoutly contends for retaining -mj, and in

Krprets it as='fate,' but he is obliged to supply a good deal himself, to make any sense of thte passage. See his argument, in loc. The

j.araphrasts all explain a: by Jp., 'early.' ija, up 3d tone, but with a hiphil force, y^ w referred to ^ j^jjj in last par., and je? to 9. 17. This is spoken of the

ruler not having respect to the common feelings of the people in his employment of ministers,

and the consequences thereof to himself. A , low. 1st tone, is used as in Ana. XI. ix. 4, or= the prep. Mk. This par. speaks generally of the primal cause of gaining and Ivsing, and shows lioio the. principle of the measuring square Vims' have its root in the ruler's mind. So, in the H gas. The great course is explained by Choo He as—' the art of occupying the throne, and therein cultivating himself and governing others.' Ying-tS says it is—'the course by which he practises filial piety, fraternal duty, benevolence, and righteousness.' Hb and •*&. are here qualities of the

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keeps its stores of ice does not rear cattle or sheep. So, the house which possesses a hundred chariots should not keep a minister to look out for imposts that he may lay them on the people. Than to have such a minister, it were better for that house to have one who should rob it of its revenues." This is in accordance with the saying: —" In a State, pecuniary gain is not to be considered to be prosperity, but its prosperity will be found in righteousness."

23, When he who presides over a State or a family makes his revenues his chief business, he must be under the influence of some small, mean, man. He may consider this man to be good; but when such a person is employed in the administration of a State or family, calamities from Heaven, and injuries from men, will befal it together, and, though a good man may take his place, he will not be able to remedy the evil. This illustrates again the saying, "In a State, gain is not to be considered prosperity, but its prosperity will be found

in righteousness."

came nature. They are not contrasted as in Ana, XIII. xxvi, 19. This is understood by K'ang-shing as requiring the promotion of agriculture, and that is included, but does not exhaust the meaning. The consumers are the 'salaried officers of the government. The sentiment of the whole is good;—where there is cheerful industry in the people, and an economical administration of the government, the finances will be flourishing, 20. The sentiment here is substantially the same as in parr, 7, 8, The old interpretation is different;—'The virtuous man uses his wealth so as to make his person distinguished. He who is not virtuous, toils with his body to increase his wealth.' 21. This shows how the people respond to the influence of the ruler, and that benevolence, even to the scattering of his wealth on the part of the latter, ia the way to permanent prosperity and wealth. 22. Hcen was the lion, epithet of Chung-sun

Mix (jj£), a worthy minister of Loo, under the

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tenth chapter of commentary explains the government of the State, and the making the empire peaceful and happy. There are thus, in all, ten chapters of commentary, the first four of which discuss, in a general manner, the scope of the principal topic of the Work; while the other six go particularly into an ejchU)ition of the work required in its subordinate branches. The fifth chapter contains the important subject of comprehending true excellence, and the sixth, what is the foundation of the attainment of true sincerity. Those two chapters demand the especial attention of the learner. Let not the reader despise them because of their simplicity.

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master, the philosopher Ch'ing, says, "Being without inclination to either side is called Chung; admitting of no change is called Yung. By Chung is denoted the correct course to be pursued by all under heaven; by Yung is denoted the faed princ>]>l' regulating all under heaven. This work contains the law of the mind, which was handed down from one to another, in the Confucian school, till Tsze-sze, fearing lest in the course of time errors should arise about it, committed it to writing, and delivered it to Mencius. The book first speaks of one principle; it next spreads this out, and embraces all things; Finally, it returns and gathers them all up under the one principle. Unroll it, and it

The Title Of The Work. — pfa Bf, 'The doctrine of the Mean.' I have not attempted to translate the Chinese character I, I I , as to

the exact force of which there is considerable difference of opinion, both among native commentators, and among previous translators.

CMng K'ang-shing said :-;g Q pf* Jfff ^jf,

is named M J, because it records the practice of the non-deviating mind and of harmony." He takes Hf. in the sense of Ph. 'to use,"

'I I'j / I J

1 to employ,' which is the first given to it in the diet., and is found in the Shoo-king, I. p. 9. As

to the meaning of d | , and p&], see ch. i. p. 4. This appears to have been the accepted meaning

of I , in this combination, till Ching E intro

duced that of ^ ^, 'unchanging,' as in the

introductory note, which, however, the diet does not acknowledge. Choo He himself 5,-iv *

for what is without inclination or deflection, which neither exceeds nor Comes short. lure,, means ordinary, constant,' The diet, gives another meaning of Yang, with special re:Vr

ence to the point before us. It is said— ^ 5^0 -fa, 'It also means harmony;' and then reference is made to K'ang-shing's word* given above, the compilers not having observed that he immediately subjoins— gt, m -jg, »lw«


universe; roll it up, and it retires and lies hid in mysteriousnens. The relish of it is inexhaustible. The whole of it is solid learning. When the skilful reader has explored it with delight till he has apprehended it, he may carry it into practice all his life, and will find that it cannot be exhausted.

Chapter I. 1. What Heaven has conferred is called The Nature; an accordance with this nature is called The Path of duty; the re-" gulation of this path is called Instruction.

cipate the judgment of the reader on the eulogy of the enthusiastic Ch'ing.

1. It has been stated, in the prolegomena, that the current division of the Chung Yung into chapters was made by Choo He, as well as their subdivision into paragraphs. The 33 chapters, which embrace the work, are again arranged by him in five divisions, as will be seen from his supplementary notes. The first and last chapters are complete in themselves, as the introduction and conclusion of the treatise. The second part contains ten chapters; the third, nine, and the fourth, twelve.

Par. 1. The principles of duty have their root in the evidenced will of Heaven, and their full txhilii

tion in the teaching of sages. By 'fff. or 'nature^ is to be understood the nature of man, that of Choo He generalizes it so as to embrace tyrant of brutes also; but only man can be cogr: 4 'to the taou and kcaou. -g^ he defines Jgt {a^e jt M command,' 'to order.' But we IYih-king, quoted in a gloss on a pass, from these igf g£i 'JJanq in thedict.--^ ^J^d\iti,.^hw He also is what menare endr^ ^ the ,principle,' charsays that '^ tajj ticular nature. But this acteristic of •..- t}lo sl,hiect in mystery. His ex

ing that he takes Yung, in the sense of 'to employ,' and not of 'harmony.' Many, however, adopt this meaning of the term in ch. ii, and my own opinion is decidedly in favour of it, here in the title. The work then treats of the human mind: — in its state of chum/, absolutely correct, as it is in itself; and in its State of /ufo, or harmony, acting ad extra, according to its correct nature. — In the version of the work, Lri von in the collection of 'MtnmirKs concernnnt flti*tvire, leu sciences, for ties C'haiois.' vol. I, it is styled — -Juste Milieu.' Kemusat calls it 'Lia- '- ni'il.le Milieu,' after Ch'ing K. Intorcetta, and his coadjutors call it — -'Medium coimtans vf,l feMpiterntun.' The book treats, they say, 'De MEVIO gBStPITEKNO, five <le aurm mediwritate. ilia, qtue at, tit ait Cicero, inter minium et parum, <V'jufoA/er et omnibus in rebus tenenda,' Morrison,

character w, says, 'Chung Yumj, the constant

(golden) medium.1 Collie calls it — 'The golden mediums The objection which I have to all these names is, that from them it would appear

as if fO were a noun, and ljl|" a qualifying adjective, whereas they are co-ordinate terms. Introductory NOTE. -3p jjS -5-, — see on

intro. note to the A fj&. On Tsze-eze, and his authorship of thu work, see the prolegomena. A- fr is a phrase denoting —' heaven. earth, and the four cardinal points,'=the ", — not our 'good reader,'

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u ni verse.

but as in the translation. — I will not here am

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is the subject in mystery.
E iM" by !&, 'a path,' seems to be
>rn writera object to

.Jwiiat is taught seems to be this :-To --
"Belongs a moral nature, conferred on
I Heaven or God, by which he u const

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