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然寵園祭神園斯 也獲何媚 王如在。祭師 乎。 罪謂於孫不 不子

指 於也。奥買 祭。日本 其 子問

吾祭掌 日媚日 子 於與



find it as easy to-govern the empire as to look on this;"—pointing to his palm. .

CHAPTER XII. 1. He sacrificed to the dead, as if they were present. He sacrificed to the spirits, as if the spirits were present.

2. The Master said, “I consider my not being present at the sacrifice, as if I did not sacrifice."

CHAPTER XIII. 1. Wang-sun Kea asked, saying, “What is the meaning of the saying, 'It is better to pay court to the furnace than to the south-west corner'?”

2 The Master said, “Not so. He who offends against Heaven has none to whom he can pray. that would be as to look on this.' , inter- reference to the customs of sacrifice. The fur

nace was comparatively a mean place, but when jective, more than interrogative. Tam, to the spirit of the fnrnace was sacrificed to, then

the rank of the two places was changed for the see.' F T, 'under heaven,' an ambitious de- time, and the proverb quoted was in vogue. signation for the Chinese empire, as ý osxoupion

But there does not seem much force in this exand orbis were used by the Greeks and Ro- planation. The door, or well, or any other of the

five things in the regular sacrifices, might take 12. CONFUCIUS' Own SINCERITY IN SACRIFI

the place of the furnace. The old explanation

which makes no reference to sacrifice is simGISG. 1. 祭 here is historical and not to be

pler. . u might be the more retired and hontranslated in the imperative. We have to sup

was the more importply an object. to the first , viz. $ , the ourable place, but the

ant for the support and comfort of the household. dead, his forefathers, as contrasted with titti in The prince and his immediate attendants might the next clause,=all the “spirits' to which in be more honourable than such a minister as Kea, his official capacity he would have to sacrifice. 2. Obs. Hil in low 3d tone, “to be present at," from woman and eyebrows,="to ogle,' 'to flat

but more benefit might be got from him. 媚 ‘to take part in.


Choo He says, Felt, 'Heaven means 1. Kea was a great officer of Wei (141), and principle. But why should Heaven mean prin. having the power of the state in his hands in. ciple, if there were not in such a use of the sinuated to Confucius that it would be for his

term an instinctive recognition of a supreme advantage to pay court to him. The ti,

government of intelligence and righteousness? south west corner, was from the structure of

We find F explained in the time to by ancient houses the cosiest nook, and the place #E'The lofty one who is of honour. Choo He explains the proverb by

on high,



郭 也。廟、高

同科古之道也 因子日射不主皮為力不


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CHAPTER XIV. The Master said, “Chow had the advantage of viewing the two past dynasties. How complete and elegant are its regulations! I follow Chow.”

CHAPTER XV. The Master, when he entered the grand temple, asked about every thing. Some one said, “Who will say that the son of the man of Tsow knows the rules of propriety. He has entered the grand temple and asks about every thing.” The Master heard the remark, and said, “This is a rule of propriety;"

CHAPTER XVI. The Master said, “In archery it is not going through the leather which is the principal thing;—because people's strength is not equal. This was the old way.

14. The COMPLETENESS AND ELEGANCE OF spoken of. FEB THE INSTItutions of THE CHOW DYNASTY. By Loo of which Conf. father had been governor,

was the name of the town in the 周

we are specially to undersand the who was known therefore as "the man of Tsow.' founders of the power and polity of the dynas- We may suppose that Conf. would be styled as ty—the kings Wan and Woo, and the duke of in the text, only in his early life, or by very Chow. The two past dynasties are of course ordinary people. the Hea and the Shang or Yin. ☆ is an adj. 16. HOW THE ANCIENTS MADE ARCHERY A DIS

CIPLINE OF VIRTUE. We are not to understand 15. CONFUCIUS IN THE GRAND TEMPLE. 大(-不

射不主皮 of allarchery anong the an太廟 was the temple dedicated to the duke

cients. The char. are found in the 儀禮 of Chow (1), and where he was worship. # #, par. 315, preceded by the char. ped with imperial rites. The thing is supposed There were trials of archery where the strength to have taken place, at the begin. of Conf. offcial service in Loo, when he went into the tem

was tested. Probably Conf. was speaking of ple with other officers to assist at the sacrifice. the Te At of his times, when the strength famed for his knowledge of them, but he thought which could go through the skin,' or leait a mark of sincerity and earnestness to make ther, in the middle of the target, was esteemed minute inquiries about them on the occasion more than the skill which could hit it.


京国使君圍為我羊国 而子臣如定詔子

日以之公也日其旦責 傷。關禮包

禮何。問 事禮賜欲 雅臣

臣孔君 君 也去 樂事子使

爾 而君臣

愛 不以臣 淫忠君事以 羊籲

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CHAPTER XVII. 1. Tsze-kung wished to do away with the offer. ing of a sheep connected with the inauguration of the first day of each month.

2. The Master said, “Tsze, you love the sheep; I love the ceremony.

CHAPTER XVIII. The Master said, “The full observance of the rules of propriety in serving one's prince is accounted by people to be flattery.

CHAPTER XIX. The duke Ting asked how a prince should employ his ministers, and how ministers should serve their prince. Confucius replied, “A prince should employ his ministers according to the rules of propriety; ministers should serve their prince with faithfulness.

CHAPTER XX. The Master said, “The Kwan Ts'eu is expressive of enjoyment without being licentious, and of grief without being hurtfully excessive."

17. How CONFUCIDS CLEAVED TO ANCIENT a sheep killed but not roasted. 2. p, in the RITES. 1. The emperor in the last month of the Fear gave out to the princes a calendar for the sense of her l 'to grudge, it is said. But 1st days of the 12 months of the year ensuing. this is hardly necessary. This was kept in their ancestral temples, and on 18. How PRINCES SHOULD BE the lst of every month, they offered a sheep AGAINST THE SPIRIT OF THE TIMES, and announced the day, requesting sanction for the duties of the month. This idea of requesting sanction is indicated by read kuh, up. anxious, tranquillizer of the people,' was the

定, Greatly 4th tone. The dukes of Loo neglected now their offered:--a meaningless formality, it remed to 508-494

. to z to, 'As it what,' Ź part of this ceremony, but the sheep was still posthumous epithet of #prince of Lao, B.C. Tsze-kung. Conf., however, thought that while ferring to the two points inquired about. any part of the cer. was retained, there was a

20. THE PRAISE OF THE FIRST OF THE ODES, better chance of restor. the whole. #, up. 3d tone, an act verb, 'to put away.' It is disputed Wat is the name of the first ode in the

She-king, and may be translated.—The mur. whether in, in the text, mean a living sheep, 08 muring of the ts'eu. See She-king, I i. 1.






日哉子往不栗人以宰哀 管或日不說子以松我公 氏日管咎遂聞栗殷對問 有管仲 事之日人日社

件 不日使以夏於 歸險 練成民柜后宰



CHAPTER XXI. The duke Gae asked Tsae Go about the altars of the spirits of the land. Tsae Go replied, “The Hea sovereign used the pine tree; the man of the Yin used the cypress; and the man of the Chow used the chestnut tree, meaning thereby to cause the people to be in awe.'

2. When the Master heard it, he said, “Things that are done, it is needless to speak about; things that have had their course, it is needless to remonstrate about; things that are past, it is needless to blame.”

CHAPTER XXII. The Master said, “Small indeed was the capacity of Kwan Chung!”.

2. Some one said, “Was Kwan Chung parsimonious?” “Kwan," was the reply, “had the San Kwei, and his officers performed no double duties; how can he be considered parsimonious?”

called , to distinguish him from his preMENT OF CONFUCIUS THEREON. 京公 decessors, the to, and I to distinguish II. 19. Tsae Go, by name F, and styled F him from , who was


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were descended from the same ancestor. See elu 我, was an eloquent disciple of the sage, a native of Loo. His place is the second west

& A and 1, in parallelism among the wise ones'社,from 示, K's | with 夏后氏,must mean the founders spirit or spirits of the earth,' and the

those dynasties; why they are simply styled soil,' means that, the resting place or explained, though comm. feel it necess, to say

1, ‘man,' or 'men,' I have not found clearly altars of the

spirits of the land or ground.' Go something on the point. 2. This is all directed simply tells the duke that the founders of the against Go's reply. He had spoken, and his several dynasties planted such and such trees words could not be recalled. about those altars. The reason was that the 22. ConfuciUS' OPINION OF Kwar-CHUNG; soil suited such trees, but as the chestnut

1. Kwan-chung, by name 夷 tree,' the tree of the existing dynasty

, is used , is one of the most famous names in Chir in the sense of birth, 'to be afraid,' he suggested history. He was chief minister to the dake a reason for its planting which might lead the ta of TL (B. C. 683-540), the first and greate be carried into effect at the altars

. Comp. est of the five p'a (19 ore), Shoo-king, IV. ii. 5, “I will put you to death princes of the empire 'under the Chow dynasty *tfore the sit: LE & is the Great Yu, lu the times of Conf. and Men., people would

虞氏 #, while they

1, on


), leaders of the


如知子 站之知

也也語 管好亦禮 chat 瞰始 魯 氏 乎。 如作为 而 塞日焉

翁 知站門非得
如樂 禮管郭君險

郭氏君樹然。 也

不亦為塞則 以之其 知有兩門管


3. “Then, did Kwan Chung know the rules of propriety?" The Master said, “The princes of states have a screen intercepting the view at their gates. Kwan had likewise a screen at his gate. The princes of states on any friendly meeting between two of them, had a stand on which to place their inverted cups. Kwan had also such a stand. If Kwan knew the rules of propriety, who does not know them?”

CHAPTER XXIII. The Master instructing the Grand music-master of Loo said, “How to play music may be known. At the commencement of the piece, all the parts should sound together. As it proceeds, they should be in harmony, severally distinct and flowing without break, and thus on to the conclusion.' more of Kwan, than those sages, no hero- was a stand, made originally of earth and turf. worshippers, would allow. 器 see II. 12, but Kwan usurped the use of it, as he did of the

This showed him to be as regardless its signif. here is different, and=our measure or of prescribed forms, as in par.2 he appears of capacity. 2. 9 in the Dict., and the expense, and he came far short therefore of the approved comm. of Choo He, was the name of Confucian idea of the Keun-tsze. an extravagant tower built by Kwan. There are 23. ON THE PLAYING OF MUSIC. 語, low, 80

the , best supported appar., being that it means tone = 1, 'to tell,' 'to instruct *(=to “three wives. (A woman's marriage is called Bibi , was the title of the grand music-mas.) The San Kwei and having no pluralists among his officers proved suff. that he could known, but the subject is not of the principles,

ter. 樂其可知也,music it may be not be parsimonious. , up. Ist tone, “how. but the performance of music. Observe the 3. M a tree," here in the sense of FF, a H. Premare says, 'adjectivis addita sensum screen, the screen of a prince, usurped by auget et exprimit modum. It is our ly or like, Kwan, who was only entitled to the of a Fa temps, blended-like. nam up. 3d tone, grcat officer. HF up. 3d tone,=f, 'a the same as 縱放, let go; ice, procedfriendly meeting.' The W from £ and sing, swelling on.


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