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above ninth chapter of commentary explains regulating the family and governing the kingdom.

Chapter X. 1. What is meant by "The making the whole empire peaceful and happy depends on the government of his State," is this:—When the sovereign behaves to his aged, as the aged should be behaved to, the people become filial; when the sovereign behaves to his elders, as elders should be behaved to, the people learn brotherly submission; when the sovereign treats compassionately the young and helpless, the people do the same. Thus the ruler has a principle with which, as with a measuring square, he may regulate his conduct.

2. What a man dislikes in his superiors, let him not display in the treatment of his inferiors; what he dislikes in inferiors, let him not display in the service of his superiors; what he hates in those who are before him, let him not therewith precede those who are behind him; what he hates in those who are behind him, let him

10. Ox THE WELL-ORDERING OF THR 8TATJ5, AND MAKING THE WHOLE EMPIRE PEACEFUL AND

HAPPY. The key to this chapter is in the phrase $j* ^ ^ |||[, the principle of reciprocity, the doing to others as we would that they should do to us, though here, as elsewhere, it is put forth negatively. It is implied in the expression of the last ch.—ffi jifc Sf. £jf T

^tft, but it is here discussed at length, and

shown in its highest application. The following analysis of the chapter is translated freely from

the I/Q at jjiJT Jigl:—'This ch. explains the well-ordering of the State, and the tranquillization of the empire. The greatest Strega is to

be laid on the phrase—the measuring square. That, and the expression in the general commentary —laving and hating what the people love and hate, and not thinking only of the profit, exhaust the teaching of the chap. It is divided into five parts. The first, embracing the two first paragraphs, teaches, that the way to make the empire tranquil and happy is in the principle of the measuring square. The second part embraces three paragraphs, and teaches that the application of the measuring square is seen in loving, and hating, in common with the people. The consequences of losing and gaining are mentioned for the first time in the 4th par., to wind up the ch. so far, showing that the decree of Heaven goes or remains, according as the people's hearts are lost or gained. The third part embracea

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