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正而焉憂所有身 身有其不視患好所有 7月 傳心知而則樂恐

不不則 念佛 味見得不

懷身 此聽其得不 謂而正其得不正

不心正其得其 身聞不有正其心 在食在所有正者

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之七章釋正心傍

CHAPTER VII. 1. What is meant by, “The cultivation of the person depends on rectifying the mind,” may be thus illuistrated :-İf a man be under the influence of passion, he will be incorrect in his conduct. He will be the same, if he is under the influence of terror, or under the influence of fond regard, or under that of sorrow and distress.

2. When the mind is not present, we look and do not see; we hear and do not understand; we eat and do not know the taste of what we eat.

3. This is what is meant by saying that the cultivation of the person depends on the rectifying of the mind.

The above seventh chapter of commentary explains rectifying the mind and cultivating the person.

<a burst of anger; and 憶, persistence in

anger,' &c., &c.—I have said above that I Chuo le, following his master Ch'ing, would

here is not the material body. Lo Chung-fan, again alter the text, and change the second But this is unnecessary. The 身

however, says that it is:-*

is the body of flesh. See his reasonings, in lor, is not the mere material body, but the but they do not work conviction in the reader. person, the individual man, in contact with things, and intercourse with society, and the 20 2. Ý 7 # this seems to be a case par. shows that the evil conduct in the first is a in point, to prove that we cannot tic in this consequence of the mind's not being under con

work to any very definite application. Lo trol. In LE, BFi (gaon), The Chung-fan insists that it is the God-given mo

the 24 term rises on the signification of ral nature, but it is evidently= the first, and intensifies it. Thus, R is called “when the thoughts are otherwise engaged

7. ON PERSONAL CULTIVATION AS DEPENDENT ON TIE RECTIFICATION OF THE MIND, 1. Here

into

in

一飾

莫有知阵務所之者 不 之其焉而是其人 ,

美故辟敬 以苗人者好焉而 齊之 莫 天之辟惡, 頁。 下知其焉而親家 其解其所之辟愛在 子突惡 款 其焉而 之故惡惰所之辟

談而 哀 其焉身

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CHAPTER VIII. 1. What is meant by “The regulation of one's family depends on the cultivation of his person,” is this:-Men are partial where they feel affection and love; partial where they despise and dislike; partial where they stand in awe and reverence; partial where they feel sorrow and compassion ; partial where they are arrogant and rude. Thus it is that there are few men in the world, who love, and at the same time know the bad qualities of the object of their love, or who hate, and yet know the excellences of . the object of their hatred.

2. Hence it is said, in the common adage, “A man does not know the wickedness of his son; he does not know the richness of his growing corn."

3. This is what is meant by saying that if the person be not cultivated, a man cannot regulate his family.

8. THE NECESSITY OF CULTIVATING THE PER- that man. When I see that he is virtuous, I feel BON, IN ORDER TO TIE REGULATION OF THE FA- affection for, and love him. I ought then to MILY. The lesson here is evidently, that men are turn round and compare him with myself. continually falling into error, in consequence Since he is virtuous and I love him, then, if I of the partiality of their feelings and affections. cultivate myself

and be virtuous, I shall so be How this error affects their personal cultiva- able in liko manner to make all men feel affection, and interferes with the regulating of their tion for and love me.' In a similar way the

families, is not specially indicated. 1. The old other clauses are dealt with. Choo He takes tik pretation. They take 2 in ŻXXL interpreters seem to go far astray in their inter: Ź aszt, in regard to,' and fi' (read přeih)

= true, 'partial,' “one-sided.' Even his opand the other clauses, as=

適, 'to go to," ponent, Lo Chung-fan, interprets here in the as synonymous with it, to compare.' same way. Ils, and the other combinations Ying-tă thus expands K'ang-shing on 1 Ź are to be taken as if there were a IT, and,' UFW T :- Suppose I go to between them. Tik is heretik, “proud, “un

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一國興 后嫁者也

一家仁一

仁 而雖康以國之其

語事孝故家所 家 中日長

長者君不謂傳 不 也子可治之 也遠 慈以不教、國

國入 矢 者事出 必章 家: 子所君家能 先釋

心以也而教

4 誠使弟成人其身 人養求职者教者家齊 食與字 子之也。所於無

無者梁

三節

The above eighth chapter of commentary explains cultivating the

person and regulating the family. CHAPTER IX. 1. What is meant by “In order rightly to govern his State, it is necessary first to regulate his family,” is this:—It is not possible for one to teach others, while he cannot teach his own family. Therefore, the ruler, without going beyond his family, completes the lessons for the State. There is filial piety :-therewith the sovereign should be served. There is fraternal submission :therewith elders and superiors should be served. There is kindness :—therewith the multitude should be treated.

2. In the Announcement to K'ang, it is said, “ Act as if you were watching over an infant.” If a mother is really anxious about it, though she may not hit exactly the wants of her infant, she will not be far from doing so. There never has been a girl who learned to bring up a child, that she might afterwards marry.

3. From the loving example of one family, a whole State becomes loving, and from its courtesies, the whole State becomes courteous, civil. 2. 171.-great,' 'tall;' # Ź TT,- being supposed to erist.which is the force of die

the tallness (richness, abundance) of his grow-tok-it is shown how the virtues that secure the ing crop. Farmers were noted, it would ap- regulation of the family, hare their corresponding pear, in China, so long ago, for grumbling about

virtues in the wider sphere of the State. # F

has here both the moral and the political nanis here implied the necessity of self-cultivation towelle ing; it is # F, “the superior rule, both oj the family and of the State, and that man with whom is the government of the state.'

their crops.

9. Ox REGULATING THE FAMILY AS THE MEANS TO THE WELL-ORDERING OF THE STATE. 1. There

國噬諸天

諸后不之樂舜謂泉 在諸人求從其約帥 齊人 人所 諸是 天 國 其者藏。

藏人 天下償作 家未 乎 君反 以事亂 、 詩之身諸子其以仁一 其 云有 人有 暴而人機 桃也烈

而民定如

從國。此 天治

治能 而民從之堯此 此

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while, from the ambition and perverseness of the one man, the whole State may be led to rebellious disorder;—such is the nature of the influence. This verifies the saying, “Affairs may be ruined by a single sentence; a kingdom may be settled by its one man.”

4. Yaou and Shun led on the empire with benevolence, and the people followed them. Këě and Chow led on the empire with violence, and the people followed them. The orders which these issued were contrary to the practices which they loved, and so the people did not follow them. On this account, the ruler must himself be possessed of the good qualities, and then he may require them in the people. He must not have the bad qualities in himself, and then he may require that they shall not be in the people. Never has there been a man, who, not having reference to his own character and wishes in dealing with others, was able effectually to instruct them.

5. Thus we see how the government of the State depends on the regulation of the family. It being once suggested to Choo He that 'to love the people,' as the second object proposT* should be Fille #4, he replied #ed in the Great Learning. 3 Ilow certainly and

rapidly the influence of the family extends to the 之不可教會我之不能教“The impossibility of that's being taught is just my

is the one family of the ruler, inability to teach.' 2. See the Shoo-king, V. x. and 一人 is the ruler. . ·人,=^I, the one 7. Both in the Shoo-king and here, some verb, like act, must be supplied. This par. seems de

man,' is a way in which the emperor speaks of signed to show that the ruler must be carried on himself; see Ana. XX. i. 5. 一言一句, to his object by an inward, unconstrained, feeling, like that of the mother for her infant. Lo Chung

1. in Ana. I i. 一言償事,一人定 fau insists on this as harmonizing with PLE -comp. Ana. XIII. xv. E and have

State.

家之子不可见后

宜 也。兄武以宜 此產弟正教弟以 謂足是國宣教 治法四人 國而國詩 宜人 在后其 弟詩 齊民為其而 其法 儀 儀后宣 了歸

且其家人宜其家人 天其葉蓁蓁之子于

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6. In the Book of Poetry, it is said, “That peach tree, so delicate and elegant! How luxuriant is its foliage! This girl is going to her husband's house. She will rightly order her household.” Let the household be rightly ordered, and then the people of the State may be taught.

7. In the Book of Poetry, it is said, “They can discharge their duties to their elder brothers. They can discharge their duties to their younger brothers.” Let the ruler discharge his duties to his elder and younger brothers, and then he may teach the people of the State.

8. In the Book of Poetry, it is said, " In his deportment there is nothing wrong; he rectifies all the people of the State.” Yes; when the ruler, as a father, a son, and a brother, is a model, then the people imitate him.

9. This is what is meant by saying, “The government of his kingdom depends on his regulation of the family." reference to the 孝,弟(一),慈, in par. as simply='good. 6. See the She-king, I. i. 1. 4. An illustration of the last part of the last

Ode VI. st. 3. The ode celebrates the wife of paragraph. But from the examples cited, the king Wăn, and the happy influence of their sphere of influence is extended from the State family government. ZF-*F Obe. to the empire, and the family, moreover, does F is feminine, as in Ana. V. i. “gving not intervene between the empire and the ruler. home,' a term for marriage, used by wonen. 7. In † Â I must be understood as See the She-king, II. ii. Ode VI. st. 3. The ade referring to the tyrants, Këč and Chow. Their was sung at entertainments, when the emperor orders were good, but unavailing, in consequence feasted the princes. It celebrates their virtues. of their own contrary example. = fer S. See the She-king

, I. xiv. Ode III. st. 3. It E, 'what is kept in one's own person, celebrates, acc. to Choo He, the praises of sona i. e., his character and mind. see Ana.

keun-tsze, or ruler. PYD-notfour statex,

but the four quarters of the state, the whole of V. xi; XV. iii. Ying-ti scems to take 7 it.

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