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德至善民之不能忘 君子終不可道今者道

今瑟也證喧 宣球有

今。今女 側球如 有座

切斐瑟子 洪 者磨如君今如 1 證儀恆者磋子茶

也煉自者終今 女 者 有也脩道不赫務 道也

斐赫也學可今如狗

4. In the Book of Poetry, it is said, “Look at that winding course of the K‘e, with the green bamboos so luxuriant! Here is our elegant and accomplished prince! As we cut and then file; as we chisel and then grind : so has he cultivated himself. How grave is he and dignified! How majestic and distinguished! Our clegant and accomplished prince never can be forgotten.” That erpression" as we cut and then file,” indicates the work of learning. “As we chisel, and then grind,” indicates that of self culture. “How grave is he and dignified !” indicates the feeling of cautious reverence. “How commanding and distinguished,” indicates an awe-inspiring deportment. “Our elegant and accomplished prince never can be forgotten,” indicates how, when virtue is complete and excellence extreine, the people cannot forget thein. mon one is $, or, properly, fils de sang | ly, but for me it for # WE for kang. It is a species of oriole. The FE are i here, petice, read 0. Ő is used as= ē, says,' worthy of observation. If the first chapter of the classical text, as Choo lle calls it, really con

or 'means.' It is to be understood before tains the words of Confucius, we might have be, this hot, and le.The transposition expected it to be headed by these characters.

of this par, by Chov He to this place does seem tilt, lit., 'in resting.? 3. See the She-king, unhappy. It ought evidently to come in conIII. i, Odle I. st. 4. The stress is here all laid

nection with the work of 1 1. 1. Sve the upon the final it, which does not appear to She-king, IV, i. Sect. I. Ole IV. st. 3. The have any force at all in the original, Choo lle

former kings are Wăn and Woo, the founders himself saying there that it is 2n), of the Chow dynasty. We are an intersupplemental particle. In #si, bi is read jection, read won hoo. In the She-king we have ww, and is an interjection. 4. Sce the She

HE king, I. v. Ode I. st. 1. The ode celebrates the virtue of the duke I'vo (Tit) of Wei (14), in

meaning. I translate 其賢,其親, by his laborious endeavours to cultivate his person.

“what they deemed worthy,'ówhat they loved.' There are some verbal differences between the

When we try to determine what that what was, ode in the She-king, and as here quoted; uaide we are perplexed by the varying views of the

a mere

are found with the same

辭使 右

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右傳之四章釋
辭大農民志此謂之
使無認乎無情者不得盡其
J日聽訟吾猶人也必也
右傳之三章釋止於

樂而利其利此以没世不忘 質其賢而親其親小人樂其 也詩云於戲前王不忘君子

以親

其也善。

5. In the Book of Poetry, it is said, “Ah! the former kings are not forgotten.” Future princes deem worthy what they deemed worthy, and love what they loved. The common people delight in what they delighted, and are benefited by their beneficial arrangements. It is on this account that the former kings, after they have quitted the world, are not forgotten.

The above third chapter of commentary explains resting in the highest

excellence. CHAPTER IV. The Master said, “In hearing litigations, I am like

any other body. What is necessary is to cause the people to have no litigations ?” So, those who are devoid of principle find it impossible to carry out their speeches, and a great awe would be struck into men's minds ;--this is called knowing the root.

The above fourth chapter of commentary explains the root and the

issue. old and new schools. YEH!!, see Analects, which we understand that the words of Conf. XV. xix.-Acc. to Ying-tá

, “this par. illustrates terminate at A +, and that what follows the business of having the thoughts sincere.' is from the compiler. According to the old Acc. to Choo He, it tells that how the former commentators, this is the conclusion of the kings renovated the people, was by their resting chapter on having the thoughts made sincere, in perfect excellence, so as to be able, throughout and that had It is the root

. But ace. should not be a single thing but got its proper to Choo, it is the illustration of illustrious virtue place.

which is the root, while the renovation of the 4. ExPLANATION OF

people is the result therefrom. Looking at the

words of Confucius, we must conclude that TRANÇUES. See the Analects XII. xiii, from I sincerity was the subject in bis-mind.

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ROOT AND TITE

011

必知不靈會在子之右 使有有 莫物格之義傳

理不 物意而之 者盡

盡惟 有霸者以今 會也於知其言補: 章此 凡是理而理欲之矣 天以有天也致日開釋知 下大未下蓋吾嘗格之 之學霸之人之謂竊物至 物始故物心知致取致也。 莫教其莫之在知程知

CHAPTER V. 1. This is called knowing the root. 2. This is called the perfecting of knowledge. The above fifth chapter of the commentary explained the meaning

of " investigating things and carrying knowledge to the utmost extent,but it is now lost

. I have ventured to take the views of the scholar Ch'ing to supply it, as follows:-The meaning of the expression, " The perfecting of knowledge depends on the investigation of things,is this:-If we wish to carry our knowledge to the utmost, we must investigate the principles of all things we come into contact with, for the intelligent mind of man is certainly formed to know, and there is not a single thing in which its principles do not inhere. But so long as all principles are not investigated, man's knowledge is incomplete. On this account, the Learning for Adults, at the outset of its lessons, instructs the learner, in regard to all things in the world, to proceed from what knowledge he has of their principles, and pursue his investiga

tences come in, as the work stands in the Le-ke,

at the conclusion of what is deemed the classical 1. This is said by one of the Ch‘ing to be TFT to what has been said there, and in the prolego

text. It is not necessary to add anything here , 'superfluous text. 2. Choo He considers mena, on the new dispositions of the work from

the time of the Sung scholars, and the manner this to be the conclusion of a chapter which is in which Choo He has supplied this supposed now lost. But we have seen that the two sen missing chapter.

5. ON THE INVESTIGATION OF THINGS, AND CARRYING KNOWLEDGE TO THE UTMOST EXTENT.

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為不善無所不至見君子而后

為故 君

心物久以不 臭司 物 之之而求因 必如 誠格全 表二至 真好 此 裏日乎

大养 精豁其 至獨 色者 用粗然極

也。此 之無無貫 小之自至 不 不通於 人 欺也明到焉用益 閒自也。 矣而則力窮 居識如 此吾眾之

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不因其已知之理而益窮之

tion of them, till he reaches the extreme point. After ererting himself in this way for a long time, he will suddenly find himself possessed of a wide and far-reaching penetration. Then, the qualities of all things, whether external or internal, the subtle or the coarse, will all be apprehended, and the mind, in its entire substance and its relations to things, will be perfectly intelligent. This is called the investigation of things. This is called the per

fection of knowledge CHAPTER VI. 1. What is meant by “making the thoughts sillcere," is the allowing no self-deception, as when we hate a bad smell, and as when we love what is beautiful. This is called self-enjoyment. Therefore, the superior man must be watchful over himself when he is alone.

2. There is no evil to which the mean man, dwelling retired, will not proceed, but when he sees a superior man, he instantly tries

1. | 4th tone, but the dict. makes it up. 20. 2. An The sincerity of the thoughts obtains, when they enforcement of the concluding clause in the last move without effort to what is right and wrong, paragraph. A up. 20 tone, the same as and, in order to this, a man must be specially on his meaning the appearance of cuna guard in his solitary moments. ali is taken cealing.' I ZLE- refers to the su

W =repose or enjoyment in perior man mentioned above,="the other.' E ones-self. 嫌 acc. to Choo He, is in the up. ! =fit, 'him,' and not=himself, which is its com

6. ON HAVING THE THOUGHTS SINCERE.

as if it were

胖、富所慎於肝善、厭 右 視其 中然 十獨 开

* 手也。方

外:
誠身 身指 子故矢

矣:
其日君 比見
了。廣
廣嚴十子謂
體乎。目必識肺

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傳之六章釋誠意 胖故君子必誠其意

善人之書如見其肺 脉然掉其不善而著其

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服 to disguise himself, concealing his evil, and displaying what is good. The other beholds hiin, as if he saw his heart and reins ;-of what use is his disguise ? This is an instance of the saying—“What truly is within will be manifested without.” Therefore, the superior man must be watchful over himself when he is alone.

3. The disciple Tsăng said, “What ten eyes behold, what ten hands point to, is to be regarded with reverence!”

4. Riches adorn a house, and virtue adorns the person. The mind is expanded, and the body is at ease. Therefore, the superior man must inake his thoughts sincere.

The above sixth chapter of commentary explains making the thoughts

sincere. mon signification. Hiti A1,-lit., “the lungs and same purport as the two preceding, showing liver.' but with the meaning which we attach that hypocrisy is of no use. Compare Mencius, to the expression substituted for it in the trans- VII. Pt I. xxi. 4. Ch‘ing K'ang-shing explains of righteousness, and the liver the seat of benet J (real pwan) by t, “large,' and Choo He Polence. Compare A F#m E by F, as in the transl. The meaning is in the Shoo-king, IV. vii. Sect. 111.3. probably the same. It is only the first of these

parr. from which we can in any way ascertain 會子: at the beginning of this the views of the writer on making the thoughts

sincere. The other parr. contain only illustraparagraph (and extending, perhaps, over to the tion or enforcement. Now the gist of the 1st hext) should suffice to show, that the whole work is not his, as assumed by Choo He. "Ten par. seems to be in

the allowing no is a round number, put for many. The recent self-deception. After knowledge has been car. (60mmentactor, Lo Chung-fan, refers Tsing's CX- ried to the utmost, this remains to be done, and pressions to the multitude of spiritual beings, it is not true that, when knowledge has been servants of Heaven or God, who dwell in the completed, the thoughts become sincere. This regions of the air, and are continually beholding fact overthrows Choo He's interpretation of the men's conduct. But they are probably only an vexed passages in what he calls the text of

of exhibiting what is said in the Confucius. Let the student examine his note preceding paragraph. 4. This par. is commonly appended to this chapter, and he will see that referred to Tsăng Sin, but whether correctly so Choo was not unconscious of this pinch of the or pot cannot be positively affirmed. It is of the difficulty...

8. The

use of

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