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而物。知其者誠其者正其 后物在知先其意先其 知格格致致意餐誠

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to rectify their hearts, they first sought to be sincere in their thoughts. Wishing to be sincere in their thoughts, they first extended to the utmost their knowledge. Such extension of knowledge lay in the investigation of things.

5. Things being investigated, knowledge became complete. Their knowledge being complete, their thoughts were sincere. Their 6. This requires the heart to be correct,' and chapter is followed by *** that again that the thoughts be sincere. Choo He defines as ZH, “what the to, which he has transferred and

made the 5th chapter of annotations. Ying-tă's body has for its lord,' and t as Źr comment on it is :- The root means the person. , what the sends forth.' Ying-tă says: garded as the root, if one can know his own

# 'that which person, this is the knowledge of the root comprehends and embraces

all considerings is apply this conclusion to the clauses under notice, called the : MÉŹ it is said that wishing to make our thoughts

, the thoughts under emotion are what is self-knowledge, and this extension of self-knowcalled u is then the meta-physical part ledge #M. Now, the change of the style of our nature, all that we comprehend under indicates that the relation of land This is conceived of as quiescent

, and when its is different from that of the parts in the activity is aroused, then we have thoughts and other clauses. It is not said that to get the one purposes relative to what affects it. The be- thing we must first do the other. Rather it ing sincere' is explained by 9, 'real. The

the is a consequence sincerity of the thoughts is to be obtained by of *, that in it is seen the other. Now, ing our knowledge to its utmost extent, with t'a rule or pattern,' and E, 'to correct," the desire that there may be nothing which it

being shall not embrace.' This knowledge, finally, is

are accepted meanings of them, and realized #H. The same authority takes taken generally and loosely as=things, #hot Hi, things,' as embracing, , 'affairs,' as

py will tell us that, when his self-knowledge is well. , sometimes=, 'to come or extend and measuring correctly, all things with which

complete, a man is a law to himself, measuring, to,' and assuming that the coming to'here is by he has to do, not led astray or beclouded by study, he makes it to examine ex

them. This is the interpretation strongly insisthaustively,' so that the

ed on by 11 the author of the

means exhausting by examination the principles of things and af- ** It is the only view into fairs, with the desire that their uttermost point any sympathy with which I can place my mind. may be reached. “We feel that this explanation In harmony with it, I would print BÆ cannot be correct, or that, if it be correct, the teaching of the Chinese sage is far beyond and the as a par. by itself, between the analytic can we suppose that, in order to secure sincerity Still there are difficulties connected with it, and

and synthetic processes described in part, 4, 5. of thought and our self-cultivation, there is necessarily the study of all the phenomena of

I leave the vexed questions, regretting my own physics and metaphysics, and of the events of inability to clear them up. history? Moreover, Choo He's view of the two Par. 5. The synthesis of the preceding processes. last clauses is a consequence of the alterations Observe the of the preceding par. is changed that exists in the Le-ke, the 7th par. of this into 2, and how now, becomes a low.

seems to me that the

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者其其人、下而備而至 厚、所本賣平。后身 未厚亂是自國 之

皆天治 有薄末 子國

治併以治家正意 其者身至而齊而誠 所否 於后家后 薄矣 本。 寧身誠

thoughts being sincere, their hearts were then rectified. Their hearts

being rectified, their persons were cultivated. Their persons being *: cultivated, their families were regulated. Their families being regulated, their States were rightly, governed. being rightly governed, the whole empire was made tranquil and happy.

6. From the emperor down to the mass of the people, all must consider the cultivation of the person the root of every thing

1 besides. : 7. It cannot be, when the root is neglected, that what should spring from it will be well ordered. It never has been the case that what was of great importance has been slightly cared for, and, at the same time, that what was of slight importance has been greatly cared

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Par. 7. Reiteration of the importance of attendo 23 nista od tone. work of ruling,' and Y by the re

ing to the root. Choo He makes the root here to

be the person, but accord. to the prec. par., it is sult. Je is used for the as in p. 2.

(the cultivation of the person'which is intendPar. 6. The cultivation of the person is the

ed. By the # or branches' is intended the prime, radical, thing required from all. I have proper ordering, of the family, the state, the said above that the Great Learning is adapted empire. Jij, thick,' and 'thin,'-used only to an emperor, but it is intimated here here metaphorically. Fot , acc. to Choo He, that the people also may take part in it in their degree F 7, “Son of Heaven,' a designa

means “the family,' and FT , the state and tion of the emperor, # F#,'be

the empire, but that I cannot understand. For cause he is ordained by Heaven.' = ing which may illustrate the second part of the

is the same as the root. Mencius has a sayIP, -all Ch'ing K'ang-shing, however, paragraph. - TS THE FT * 09-查是事行是也,壹是薄:He who is careles in what is important, means that they uniformly do this.'

will be careless in every thing.'

/m.au

諸日克明德

康序更因本門則 子右 告 如

子 記予其言 克左。文) 之之傳而章

別定簡也意十會蓋
需零響需章

而章子孔

更考經文別為

DUo
The preceding chapter of classical text is in the words of Confucius,

handed down by the philosopher Tsăng. The ten chapters of
explanation which follow contain the views of Tsăng, and were
recorded by his disciples. In the old copies of the work, there
appeared considerable confusion in these, from the disarrangement
of the tablets. But now, availing myself of the decisions of the
philosopher Ch'ing, and having examined anew the classical text,
I have arranged it in order, as follows:-

COMMENTARY OF THE PHILOSOPHER TSANG. CHAPTER I. 1. In the Announcement to K‘ang it is said, “He was able to make his virtue illustrious."

CONCLUDING NOTE. It has been shown in the posed to form this and the five succeeding prolegomena that there is no ground for the chapters. It was, no doubt, the occurrence of distinction made here between so much king at. , in the four paragraphs here, and of the tributed to Confucius, and so much full commentary, ascribed to his disciple Trăng. The phrase in the which determined Choo He invention of paper is ascribed to Ts'ae Lun to form them into one chapter, and refer them

to the first head in the classical text. The old (蔡倫), an officer of the Han dynasty, in

an officer of the Han dynasty, in commentators connect them with the great the time of the emperor Hwo Gho, A. D. 89— business of making the thoughts sincere. l.

See the Shoo-king, V. x. 3. The words are 104. Before that time, and long after also, part of the address of King Woo to his brother slips of wood and of bamboo (fühj)

, were used Pung (t), called also K'ang-shuh (thi to write and engrave upon. We can easily conceive how a collection of them might get the hon. ep.) on appointing him to the Great Learning did do so is a question che marquisate of The subject of is mently disputed. # *- 'the chapter referred. We cannot determine, from this

king Wăn, to whose example K'ang-shuh is of classic on the right;" tot on the left;" par., between the old interpretation of the --these are expressions=our “preceding,' and ='virtues,' and the new which understands by * as follows,' indicating the Chinese method of it,—the heart or nature, all-virtuous.' 2. See writing and printing from the right side of a the Shoo-king, IV. v. Sect. I. 2. Choo He manuscript or book on to the left.

takes mas=itt, “this,' or 審 'do julge! COMMENTARY OF THE PHILOSOPHER TSANG.

(to examine. The old interpr. explain it by The student will do well to refer here to the E 'to correct.' The sentence is part of the text of "The Great Learning,' as it appears in address of the premier, E-yin, to Tae-kes, the the Le-ke. He will then see how a consider 2d emperor of the Shang dynasty, B. C. 1752able portion of it has been broken up, and trans- | 1718. The subject of this T'ae-koa's fatber,

1, THE ILLUSTRATION OF ILLUSTRIOUS VIRTUE.

故雖語新學

皆命大 君舊日日湯明右 自守 帝甲 子作日之德傳 「典 無其新新盤 之 也。只顧 所命民又銘 不 維詩日 日 用新,日新

新者 其是周康日

德明

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2. In the T'ae Këă, it is said, “He contemplated and studied the illustrious decrees of Heaven.'

3. In the Canon of the emperor Yaou, it is said, “He was able to make illustrious his lofty virtue.

4. These passages all show how those sovereigns made themselves illustrious.

The above first chapter of commentary explains the illustration of

illustrious virtue. CHAPTER II. 1. On the bathing-tub of T'ang, the following words were engraved :—“If you can one day renovate yourself, do so from day to day. Yeå, let there be daily renovation.”

2. In the Announcement to K‘ang, it is said, “To stir up the new people."

3. In the Book of Poetry, it is said, “ Although Chow was an ancient state, the ordinance which lighted on it was new.

4. Therefore, the superior man in every thing uses his utmost endeavours. the great T'ang. Choo He understands by nothing to do with the renovation of the people.

This is self-evident in the 1st and 3d parr. 'The the Heaven-given, illustrious nature of heading of the chapter, as above, is a misnian. The other school take the phrase more

1. This fact about T'ang's bathing

tub had come down by tradition. At least, generally,=the I, displayed ways' of we do not now find the mention of it anywhere Heaven. 3. See the Shoo-king, I. 2. It is of but here. It was customary among the anthe emperor Yaou that this is said 4. The cients, as it is in China at the present day, to must be referred to the three quotations. furniture, such moral aphorisms and lessons. 2.

2. THE RENOVATION OF THE PEOPLE. Here See the Kang Kaou, p. 7, where Kang-shuh is the character WT, 'new,''to renovate,' occurs

exhorted to assist the emperor 'to settle the dve times, and it was to find something corre decree of Heaven, and HE WĘ which sponding to it at the commencement of the work, may mean to make the bad people of Yin into which made the Ch'ing change the W of good people, or to stir up the new people, i. e.. WR, into Wi. But the W licre lave She-king, III. L Ode 1. st. 1. The subject of the

nomer.

於為君穆以偶止 極。 人止文人子詩

子詩詩右 子、於王而日云云傳 國 止仁於不於非 人於 為糧, 止變談 交孝人 島知黄千章

止為臣、敬乎其烏里釋 於人止止詩所止惟新 信。父於爲云止于民民。 寺舉止敬人 可所

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The above second chapter of commentary explains the renovating

of the people. Cuapter III. 1. In the Book of Poetry, it is said, “The imperial domain of a thousand le is where the people rest."

2. In the Book of Poetry, it is said, " The twittering yellow bird rests on a corner of the mound." The Master said, “When it rests, it know's where to rest. Is it possible that a man should not be equal to this bird?”

3. In the Book of Poetry, it is said, “ Profound was King Wăn, With how bright and unceasing a feeling of reverence did he regard his resting places!” As a sovereign, he rested in benevolence. As a minister, he rested in reverence. As a son, he rested in filial piety. As a father, he rested in kindness. In communication with his subjects, he rested in good faith. odle is the praise of king Wăn, whose virtue led tablishment of the Shang or Yin dynasty. to the possession of the empire ly his house, is the 1000 le around the capital, and constitarmore than a thousand years after its first risc.ing the imperial demesne. The quotation Sios 3. # F is here the man of rank and office according to Choo He, that it is not, for ny own part. see the particular relation LE Ź here in every thing has the place where of this to the preceil. parr., nor the work which it onght to rest.' But that surely is a very it does in relation to the whole chapter.

swecping conclusion from the words. 2. See 3. OS RESTING IN THE HIGJIEST EXCELLENCE. the She-kiny, II. viii. Ode VI. st. 2, where we The frequent occurrence of it in these para contrasting his position with that of a bird

.

liave the complaint of a down-truhler man, graphs, and of , in par. 4, led Choo He For

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here, we have it in the She-king, to combine them in one chapter, and connect them with the last clause in the opening par.

籍變 are intended to express the sound of 1. See the She-king, IV. iii. Ode the bird's singing or chattering. The yellow III. st. 4. Thic ude celebrates the rise and es biru' is known by a variety of nanes. A cyan

of the work.

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