« הקודםהמשך »
大 焉者而 獨人也初孔子學
必論 為: 應由 比學 乎 次 可德
My master, the philosopher Ch'ing, says:-"The Great Learning is
a book left by Confucius, and forms the gate by which first learners enter into virtue.
That we can now perceive the order in which the ancients pursued their learning, is solely owing to the preservation of this work, the Analects and Mencius coming after
Learners must commence their course with this, and then it may be hoped they will be kept from error.” Title of the Work.-t, The Great | He's definition, on the contrary, is-** Learning. I have pointed out, in the prolegom titt Inena, the great differences which are found among Chinese commentators on this Work, on
Learning of Adults. One of the paraphrasts almost every point connected with the criticism who follow him says-teti til here on the very threshold. The name itself is F** means adults, in opposition simply the adoption of the two commencing to children. The grounds of Choo He's interpr. characters of the treatise, according to the are to be found in his very elegant preface to custom noticed at the beginning of the Analects; the Book, where he tries to make it out, that but in explaining those two characters, the old we have here the subjects taught in the advanced and new schools differ widely. Anciently, t schools of antiquity. I have contented myself was read as #, and the oldest commentator a literal translation of the characters, whether whose notes on the work are preserved, Ch‘ing read as , or to K‘ang-shing, in the last half of the second
THE INTRODUCTORY NOTE.--I have thought it century
, said that the book was called to well to translate this, and all the other notes HUN, TA EE, " because original text, because they appear in nearly all it recorded that extensive learning, which was the editions of the work, which fall into the hands available for the administration of government.? must be regarded as the orthodox one.
of students, and his view of the classics is what This view is approved by Kʻung Ying-tă (FL translation, which is here given, is also, for the , whose expansion of K'ang-shing's most part, according to his views, though my
own differing opinion will be found freely exnotes, written in the first half of the 7th century, pressed in the notes. Another version, followstill remains. He says-5 EC# ing the order of the text, before it was trans
posed by him and his masters, the Ch'ing, and 大學
means the highest principles.' Choo without reference to his interpretations, will be
后定而善。止親明道大 能定后知於民德在學差 静而有止至在在明之矣。
THE TEXT OF CONFUCIUS. 1. What the Great Learning teaches, is to illustrate illustrious virtue; to renovate the people; and to rest in the highest excellence.
2. The point where to rest being known, the object of pursuit is then determined; and, that being determined, a calm unperturbedness may be attained. To that calmness there will succeed a tranquil found in the translation of the Le-ke.- Ft ous nature, he has to proceed to bring about
the same result in every other man, till under F ,--see note to the Ana. I. i. The Ch‘ing heaven' there be not an individual, who is not here, is the second of the two brothers, to whom in the same condition as himself. The highest reference is made in the prolegomena. FLÆ, matters. It is not a third and different object •Confucius,' the Kóung, as # is found of pursuit, but indicates a perseverance in the continually in the Analects for the Ke, i. e., the -According to these explanations, the objects chief of the Ke family. But how can we say contemplated in the Great Learning, are not that “The Great Learning' is a work left by three, but two. Suppose them realized, and we Confucius? Even Choo He ascribes only a should have the whole world of mankind persmall portion of it to the Master, and makes fectly good, every individual what he ought to the rest to be the production of the disciple be! Tsăng, and before his time, the whole work was attributed generally to the sage's grandson. I
Against the above interpretation, we have to should be glad if I had authority for taking consider the older and simpler. it is there FLF as=FL 19, the Confucian school. not the nature, but simply virtue, or virtuous CHAPTER I. THE TEXT of Confucics. Such Learning is the making of one's-self more and
conduct, and the first object in the Great Choo He, as will be seen from his concluding more illustrious in virtue, or the practice of be; note, determines this chapter to be, and it has nevolence, reverence, filial piety, kindness, and been divided into two sections (EX), the first sincerity. See the # # containing three paragraphs, occupied with the loc.There is nothing, of course, of the renorating heads (CM ) of the Great Learning, and the of the people, in this interpretation. The second second"containing four paragraphs, occupied object of the Great Learning is LE= with the particulars (*) of those. For E'to love the people.”—The third Par. 1. The heads of the Great Learning. t object
is said by Ying-tă to be · in resting in 學之道,一the
conduct which is perfectly good (LE way of the Great Learning,' being=ETZT, 'the methods 2*11)'and here also, there would
seem to be only two objects, for what essential of cultivating and practising it,'--the Great
distinction can we make between the first and Learning, that is. 'is in. The first Hly is third? There will be occasion below to refer a verb ; the second is an adjective, qualifying to the reasons for changing into #r, and 1. The illustrious virtue is the virtuous na their unsatisfactoriness. To love the people'is, ture which man derives from Heaven. This is doubtless, the second thing taught by the Great perverted as man grows up, through defects of Learning. - Having the beads of the Great the physical constitution, through inward lusts, learning now before us, according to both inand through outward seductions; and the great terpretations of it, we feel that the student of business of life should be, to bring the nature
it should be an emperor, and not an ordinary back to its original purity.-"To renovate the people,'--this object of the Great Learning is
Pur. 2. The mental process by which the point
of rest may be attained. I confess that I do not made out, by changing the character L of the well understand this par., in the relation of its old text into *. The Ch‘ing first proposed the parts in itself
, nor in relation to the rest of the alteration, and Choo He approved of it. When chapter
. Choo He says:-JE is the ground a man has entirely illustrated his own illustri- | where we ought to rest;'--namely, the highest ex
治明近終得后静 佛家先其德道始物能而 其者 國於 於矣知有慮 身先 欲天古所本慮能 者家治 之先末而安 先其欲 者欲後事后安 正身 先明則有能
repose. In that repose there may be careful deliberation, and that deliberation will be followed by the attainment of the desired end.
3. Things have their root and their completion. Affairs have their end and their beginning. To know what is first and what is last will lead near to what is taught in the Great Learning.
4. The ancients who wished to illustrate illustrious virtue throughout the empire, first ordered well their own States. Wishing to order well their States, they first regulated their families. Wishing to regulate their families, they first cultivated their persons. Wishing to cultivate their persons, they first rectified their hearts. Wishing cellence mentioned above. But if this be known succeeding ones. They contend that the illusin the outset, where is the necessity for the entration of virtue and renovation of the people er careful deliberation,' which issues in its at
are doings ($), and not things ($). Acc. to tainment ? The paraphrasts make it to them, the things are the person, heart, thoughts; embrace even all that is understood by the family, kingdom, and empire, which are e below.—Ying-tă is perhaps rather cesses put forth on those things. —This, it seems more intelligible. He says :When it is known to me, is the correct interpretation. that the rest is to be in the perfectly good, then Par. 4. The different steps by which the illustrathe mind has fixedness. So it is free from con- tion of illustrious virtue throughout the empire may cupiscence, and can be still, not
engaging in be brought about. JWTFT is unpose and harmony of the feelings. That state derstood by the school of Choo He as embracing of the feelings fits for careful thought about the two first objects of the Great Learning, the afairs (EE), and thence ittion of the people. We are not aided in deter
illustration, namely of virtue, and the renovaresults that what is right in affairs is attained.'| mining the meaning by the synthetic arrange. Perhaps, the par. just intimates that the objects ment of the different steps in the next par., for of the G. L. being so great, a calm, serious, the result arrived at there is simply-FT thoughtfulness is required in proceeding to seek their attainment.
the whole empire was made tranquil. – Par. 3. The order of things and methods in the sco preceding paragraphs. So, acc. to Choo He, Ying-ta's comment is-WEZA illustration of virtue," he says, " is the foot, and W THE HAFT, 'to display illustriously the renovation of the people is the completion their own illustrious virtue (or, virtues), making (lit., the branches). Knowing where to rest is them reach through the whole empire. But the beginning, and being able to attain is the end. the influence must be very much transformaThe root and the beginning are what is first. tive. Of the several steps described, the cenThe completion and end are what is lust:--The tral one is *, 'the cultivation of the person,' contrary, that this par. is introductory to the I which, indeed, is called # 'the root,' in par.