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簡罪小終。中曆 以 不告子舜四數 差堯 萬 敢于履亦海在 日 方心赦皇敢以困爾 第 萬胀帝皇用命躬 方臣后玄天允舜十 有有不帝牡口森執天 罪罪敲有敢予其之

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CHAPTER I. 1. Yaou said, “Oh! you, Shun, the Heaven-determined order of succession now rests in your person. Sincerely hold fast the Due Mean. If there shall be distress and want within the four seas, your Heavenly revenue will come to a perpetual end."

2. Shun also used the same language in giving charge to Yu.

3. T'ang said, “I, the child Le, presume to use a dark-coloured victim, and

presume to announce to Thee, O most great and sovereign God, that the sinner I dare not pardon, and thy ministers, O God, I do not keep in obscurity. The examination of them is by thy mind, O God. If, in my person, I commit offences, they are not to beattributed to you, the people of the myriad regions. If you in the myriad regions commit offences, these offences must rest on my person. . HEADING OF Tuis Book. #thought it sufficient, if he gave the substance of

the original in his quotations, without seeking + 'Yaou said—No. XX.' Hing Ping says: to observe a verbal accuracy, or, possibly, the This records the words of the two emperors,

Shoo-king, as it was in his days, may have conthe three kings, and of Confucius, throwing tained the passages as he gives them, and the light on the excellence of the ordinances of variations be owing to the burning of most of Heaven, and the transforming power of govern

the classical books by the founder of the Ts-in ment. Its doctrines are all those of sages, wor- dynasty, and their recovery and restoration in a thy of being transmitted to posterity. On this mutilated state. l. We do not find this address account, it brings up the rear of all the other of Yaou to Shun in the Shoo-king, Pt I., but the books, without any particular relation to the different sentences may be gathered from Pt II. one immediately preceding.'

ii. 14, 15, where we have the charge of Shun to Yo, T'ANG, AND W00. The first five paragraphs istration to Shun. He died., B. C. 2256, and, two 1. PRINCIPLES AND WAYS OF Yaou, Shun, Yu. Yaou's reign commenced B. C. 2356, and

after reigning 73 years, he resigned the adminhere are mostly compiled from different parts

years after, Shun occupied the throne, in obetious of language. The compiler may have dience to the will of the people. FZS.





民繼 人是在 敏實

權 則則 世之量姓雖 有得焉。舉政審有有 功泉所金逸行法過、周有 公信重民焉度在親 則則民

子不 說民食下滅 減廢 如善


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4. Chow conferred great gifts, and the good were enriched.

5. Although he has his near relatives, they are not equal to | my virtuous men. The people are throwing blame upon me, the one man."

6. He carefully attended to the weights and measures, examined the body of the laws, restored the discarded officers, and the good government of the empire took its course.

7. He revived states that had been extinguished, restored families whose line of succession had been broken, and called to office those who had retired into obscurity, so that throughout the empire the hearts of the people turned towards him.

8. What he attached chief importance to, were the food of the people, the duties of mourning, and sacrifices.

9. By his generosity, he won all. By his sincerity, he made the people repose trust in him. By his earnest activity, his achievements were great. By his justice, all were delighted. lit, “the represented and calculated numbers Pt IV. iii. 4, 8. Down to fill is a of heaven,' i. c., the divisions of the year, its terms, months, and days, all described in a ca

prayer addressed to God by T'ang, on his unlendar, as they succeed one another with deter- dertaking the overthrow of the Hea dynasty, mined regularity. Here, ancient and modern

which he rehearses to his nobles and people, interpreters agree in giving to the expression after the completion of his work. T'ang's name the meaning which appears in the translation. KI. We do not find in the Shoo-king the I may observe here, that Choo He differs often from the old interpreters in explaining these remarkable designation of God passages of the Shoo-king, but I have followed . For the grounds on which I translate his views to be considered in the annotations by God, see my work on ‘The notions of the on the Shoo-king. 3. Before here we must Chinese concerning God and Spirits. En understand the designation of the founder used for sovereign,' and applied to the emper

generally used for empress,' was anciently of the Shang dynasty. The sentences here may ors. Here, it is an adjective, or in apposition in substance be collected from the Shoo-king, with . The sinner is Këč :), the tyrant,



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何 驕怨 子斯子何

威欲何可口如: 而而 而而謂以尊斯張

不不不五從五可問 不猛。食費美政美以於 而費。子泰勞子矣。屏從孔 利子張而而日子四政子 之日日不君張惡矣。日


CHAPTER II. 1. Tsze-chang asked Confucius, saying, “In what way should a person in authority act in order that he may conduct government properly?” The Master replied, “Let him honour the five excellent, and banish away the four bad, things ;—then may he conduct government properly.” Tsze-chang said, “What are meant by the five excellent things?” The Master said, “When the person in authority is beneficent without great expenditure ; when he lays tasks on the people without their repining; when he pursues what he desires without being covetous; when he maintains a dignified ease without being proud; when he is majestic without being fierce.”

2. Tsze-chang said, “What is meant by being beneficent without great expenditure?” The Master replied, “When the


17 and last emperor of the Hea dynasty. The | The remaining paragraphs are descriptive of ministers of God' are the able and virtuous men, the policy of king Woo, but cannot, excepting whom T'ang had called, or would call, to office.

the 8th one, be traced in the present Shoo-king. By # , T'ang indicates that, in his 1. par. 9, is in the low. 3d tone. See XVII. punishing or rewarding, he only wanted to act

6, which chap., generally, resembles this parain harmony with the mind of God. # graph.

2. How GOVERNMENT MAY BE CONDUCTED 方三萬方小民何預焉, as in the

WITH EFFICIENCY, BY HONOURING FIVE EXCELtransl . In the dict., it is said that and fil

THINGS:-A CONVERSATION WITH Tszk-CHANG. are interchanged. This is a case in point. . 4. It is understood that this chapter, and the next, In the Shoo-king, Pt V. iii. 8, we find king give the ideas of Confucius on government, as Woo saying 大賽於四海而萬姓 a sequel to those of the ancient sages and em

perors, whose principles are set forth in the last DE AB, 'I distributed great rewards through chapter, to show how Confucius was their the empire, and all the people were pleased and

proper successor. 1. On B see VI. 6, but submitted. 5. See the Shoo-king, Pt V. i. sect. I.6.7. The subject in 雖有周親為受

the glos of the 備旨 says-從政只泛 約, prant of the Yin dynasty. 周一說行政不作為大夫,從政

here denotes generally the practice of governthe sense of 2. B is used in the sense of ment. It is not to be taken as indicating & o'to blame.”—The people found fault with meaning of the phrase, Confucius describing

ininister.' We may, however, retain the proper him, because he did not come to save them from principles to be observed by all in authority, and their sufferings, by destroying their oppressor. ) which will find in the highest their noblest



勞而勞之又誰怨欲仁 斯不亦惠而不費平擇可


而無得 勞 暴殺 其

不1 膽騎 大又 合之謂亦視乎 焉之

致虐 威儀君敢 又 期不惡而然子慢君


人正斯 之視日猛望其不無 乎 賊成不乎。而衣亦眾仁 猶謂教子異冠泰寡而可 authority makes more beneficial to the people the things from which they naturally derive benefit;—is not this being beneficent without great expenditure? When he chooses the labours which are proper, and makes them labour on them, who will repine? When his desires are set on benevolent government

, and he realizes it, who will accuse him of covetousness ? Whether he has to do with many people or few, or with things great or small, he does not dare to indicate any disrespect;—is not this to maintain a dignified ease with



any pride? He adjusts his clothes and cap, and throws a dignity into his looks, so that, thus dignified, he is looked at with awe ;-is not this to be majestic without being fierce?”

3. Tsze-chang then asked, “What are meant by the four bad things?” The Master said, “To put the people to death without having instructed them;—this is called cruelty. To require from them, suddenly, the full tale of work, without having given them Warning:—this is called oppression.' To issue orders as if without urgency, at first, and, when the time comes, to insist on them with eabodiment. The favours this view. 1 Z is instanced by the employment of the people &e its paraphrase "in loc. I have therefore in advantageous public works. EZZ translated ! F by—'a person in authority' is explained :-Desire for what is not proper 勞而不怨 -see IV. 18, though the appli- is covetousness, but if, while the wish to have cation of the terms there is different.

, 泰而 不騎

3-46 XII. 26. 威而不猛8ce tient of people's evils, he administers a governVII. 37. 2. EEZ is instanced by is benevolence, and what he gets is the same; te promotion of agriculture. * Z! -how can he be regarded as covetous ? '

' TL

the empire overshadowed by his benevolence has not reached to universal advantaging, his desire does not cease, then, with a heart impa

ment impatient of those evils. What he desires

知知以為知 謂出 人言立知君命子

命子之 也無也。禮子無日有

只有之人 以不無也以不司也

severity ;—this is called injury. And, generally speaking, to give pay or rewards to men, and yet to do it in a stingy way;—this is called acting the part of a mere official.”

CHAPTER III. `1. The Master said, “Without recognizing the ordinances of Heaven, it is impossible to be a superior man.

2. “Without an acquaintance with the rules of Propriety, it is impossible for the character to be established.

3. “Without knowing the force of words, it is impossible to know men." is explained here by 'to require from.' or PROPRIETY, AND THE FORCE OF WORDS, ALL We may get that meaning out of the char., which='to examine,' 'to look for.' A good

NECESSARY TO BE Known. 1. * here is not deal has to be supplied, here and in the sentences only “knowing,' butó believing and resting in? below, to bring out the meaning as in the trans- A is the will of Heaven regarding right and lation. We z is explained by H Ź, and wrong, of which man has the standard in his orn seems to me to be nearly=our on the whole.' moral nature. If this be not recognized, a man Hi giving out,' i. e., from this and “pre

is the slave of passion, or the sport of feeling, senting,' ;. e., to that. The whole is understood

2. Compare VIII. 8, 2. 3. * here supposes to refer to rewarding men for their services, and, much thought and examination of principles. doing it in an unwilling and stingy manner.

Words are the voice of the heart. To know 3. THE ORDINANCES OF HEAVEN, THE RULES

man, we must attend well to what and how by thinks.

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