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nineteen from the whole of the workhouses to which they refer. . . With the exe ception of, I think, three, every one of those cases of restraint being, in niy opinion, open to satisfactory explanation.”—(Queries, 2015, 2017.)
The Commissioners had asserted that the law respecting the removal of pauper lunatics to asylums was constantly evaded; Mr. Doyle states that of the total number of 7000 lunatics found by the Commissioners in workhouses during the period referred to in their report, “ they recommended the removal of only 153.”—(Qy. 2018.)
These objections are certainly of considerable importance, and would incline us to modify our views in several respects as to the extent to which the evils animadverted upon by the Lunacy Commissioners exist.
Mr. Doyle is less happy in several other objections, but we need only mention one of these. He remarks, in reference to certain observations in the Supplementary Report which“ would lead any man to state that the poor in workhouses are ‘stinted or starved; that
nobody who is acquainted with the practice of the Poor Law Board can appreciate the pains they take to ascertain that every dietary table which is issued contains an average quantity of nutritious food. In point of fact, every dietary table of every union in England is submitted to the Poor Law Board; it is analysed scientifically by them before it is issued, and upon that analysis they frequently make suggestions for improvement; and no dietary table can be issued in any workhouse without having the seal of the Poor Law Board, after having undergone that examination, affixed to it.”—(Qy. 2056.)
Mr. Doyle had surely forgotten the examples of minimum workhouse diets recorded in the Supplementary Report when he made this statement. At the Hailsham work house the lunatics have but one spare meat dinner during the week, four ounces of meat only being allowed to the men, and two and a half ounces to the women; while bread and cheese, without beer, constitute the dinners on four other days, and pudding on the remaining two. In the Amesbury workhouse the inmates are restricted to bacon twice a week (four ounces for men, and three ounces for women) pudding twice, and a very weak soup twice. “In many other workhouses," the Lunacy Commissioners assert, "meat is only given to the insane once a week, and even then in very small and insufficient quantity."'* Mr. Doyle seems also to have forgotten that, shortly before he made his statement respecting workhouse dietaries, the following passage had been read to him from a report made by three local magistrates, concerning the treatment of lunatics in the workhouse at Dursley,
“We saw and ascertained that about one quarter of the dinner given to the females in the idiot ward consisted of boiled sweed turnips, an article grown for the consumption of cattle and sheep, but not of mankind; that it is used for the inmates generally, as well as for the three or four females of this class, may be inferred from the strong smell arising from its being boiled pervading the house.
“PURNELL B. PURNELL.”
Mr. Doyle and the Commissioners of Lunacy regard the subject of the care of lunatics in workhouses from very different points of view. The latter use the term lunatic in its widest signification; the former would restrict its meaning very considerably, hence it is that he says:
-“ In nine out of ten unions I find no lunatics at all, or only two or three harmless people out on the land working, and if they are women, in the body of the house, doing household work ; in fact, they are servants of the establishment, and not lunatics or idiots in the sense in which any man of common sense would call them so; they may be brought, by the very large definition given by the Commissioners of Lunacy to the medical officers, within the scope or the meaning of lunatics and idiots, but lunatics and idiots, properly speaking, they are not.”—(Query 2054.) Unfortunately, Mr. Doyle had a few moments before spoken thus of his knowledge of lunacy :-“I have no knowledge whatever, and I have no pretension to give an opinion upon the question with respect to the treatment of lunacy or lunatics.- Or with regard to the characteristics of insanity ?-Certainly not."-(Queries 2035, 2036.) Common sense, therefore, as used by Mr. Doyle in the above expression of opinion, must mean entire ignorance. The Commissioners conceive that work houses cannot, under any circumstances, become a satisfactory place for the care or treatment of lunatics or idiots. Mr. Doyle believes that these institutions are well fitted for the care of idiots, imbeciles, and chronic cases of insanity; but by the announcement of his ignorance both of the characteristics and treatment of the insane he has cut the grourd from under his feet entirely. The Commissioners knowing what insanity is, and what is required even for the ordinary care of the mildest or the most confirmed case, and seeing how impracticable it is to mould the rules necessary for the government of a workhouse, or the accommodation requisite for paupers, into a form adapted for lunatics, idiots, or imbeciles, have concluded the worst from the facts ascertained during their inquiry. They have painted their picture, therefore, in gloomy colours. Mr. Doyle has evidently never before given much attention to the lunatic inhabitants of workhouses; he regards the workhouse as the proper place for the pauper;
he can see no reason from want of previous attention to the subject, why the quiet lunatic, idiot, or imbecile should not be treated simply as a pauper ; he has admitted his ignorance of the very points which would alone have enabled him to judge rightly of the general question, but strong in his convictions, he has opposed a vigorous, if not very coherent, defence against the assertions and conclusions of the Commissioners. He has said amply sufficient to show (if any one, indeed, needed that showing) that Lord Shaftesbury was not justified in asserting that the idiots in our workhouses were exposed to the “very greatest cruelty,” and that " we are now returning, in these workhouses, to the system of things that prevailed in 1828, there being no means of classifying these persons; a large proportion of these were then chained down, and kept in the most horrible state of filth and suffering. He has said sufficient also to convince us that the impression we had derived from the Supplemena tary Report respecting the general treatment of lunatics in workhouses NO. XVII.-NEW SERIES.
is a somewhat exaggerated one, and so far wrong; but he has said nothing to convince us that the evils detailed in that Report are not peculiar to, and probably inseparable from, the rules regulating workhouse management, and that the opinions founded upon these evils are not, at the bottom, essentially correct. Mr. Doyle has painted his subject in the brightest colours, but we cannot avoid thinking that he has helped to bring out in a clearer light the unfitness of work houses either for the detention or treatment of lunatics.
With the exception then of modifying our notions somewhat as to the extent to which the grosser evils arising from the detention of lunatics in work houses prevail, we see no need to alter the conclusions we arrived at in our article on “ Pauper Lunacy."
II. The following interesting and valuable statistics are from the remarks of Frederick Purday, Esq., Principal of the Statistical Department of the Poor Law Board, appended to the Parliamentary Return of Insane Paupers chargeable on the first of January, 1859.
1. The statistics of pauper insanity contained in this paper have been compiled from the lists of " Lunatics, Idiots, and other Persons of Unsound Mind," who were chargeable to the poor rates on the list January, 1859. These lists are made out anuually by the Clerks to the Guardians, and transmitted to the Poor Law Board, in compliance with the 16 and 17 Vict. c. 97, s. 64.
2. In tabulating the numbers under "Lunatic," or "Idiot,” this classification has been observed. All cases of congenital insanity, under whatever name returned, have been entered as “ Idiots,” all the other cases as “ Lunatics;" whether the insanity commenced at a stated
or at an“ unknown” age. 3. Returns were received from 615* unions and single parishes under Boards of Guardians; the population of these places, according to the census of 1851, was 17,669,448; but, estimated to the 1st January, 1859, it was 19,430,000. The number of insane paupers chargeable to the Poor Rates in those places, on that day, was as follows:
Thus 3.50 per cent. of the pauperism, on the 1st January last, is ascribable to insanity; the lunatics being 2:47 per cent., and the idiots 1:03 per cent.
“Besides these Unions, some places, which do not make the usual returns of Pauperism to the Poor Law Board, have transmitted lists of insane paupers. The total number of insane paupers so returned is 93; viz., 75 lunatics, and 23 idiots ; the particulars are printed, with the other Unions, at p. 26, et seq.
4. In regard to the sexes, 13,389 were males, and 16,929 females :
It is worthy of remark that, while the females considerably preponderate among the lunatics, they do not much exceed the males among the idiots. But, taking the two classes together, the ratio of females to males is not so great as it is in the pauperism at large, where, among the adults, the female are more than double the number of the male recipients of relief. The returns of pauperism do not dis. tinguish the sexes of the children, but there is no reason to suppose that, if they were discriminated, the proportion would be materially changed. 5. In the subjoined table, the number of lunatic and idiot
paupers is shown for each division of England and Wales.
6. The ages of 19,886 lunatics are given in the following summary :
8. In 13,672 cases classed as lunatic, the returns, in stating the length of time “supposed to be of unsound mind,” as well as the age of the person, have supplied the means of arriving at the date of the attack. This is shown in quinquennial periods, and in respect of 5923 males, and 7719 females, in the next table.
9. The 30.318 Insane Paupers were maintained in the following establishments, or were lodged with strangers, or resided with their relatives ; namely
14,481 in-County or Borough Lunatic Asylums.
906 in Lodgings, or Boarded Out.
Of the small number returned as “In Lodgings, or Boarded Out," 326, or more than one-third, are chiargeable to parishes in Wales.