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to compensate their sufferings, reward their merit, and punish their crimes in another. The foregoing instructions, both with regard to God and to morality, appear also without any traces of either learning or study. No set proofs, no formal arguments, no regular deduction or investigation, by which such conclusions could be derived the very different state likewise of learning and inquiry in Judea and other countries—and the vast superiority of this to any other system of religion: all these circumstances show that the authors of it must have had some sources of information which the others had not.

A SHORT MEMOIR OF RICHARD YATES, M. A. MASTER OF

THE FREE GRAMMAR SCHOOL AT APPLEBY IN

WESTMORELAND.

Richard Yates, M.A. was born at a village near Bampton in Westmoreland, about the year 1700 ; for the date of his age went with that of the century. He received his early education at the free grammar school of Bampton ; a school of some celebrity, where the learned Bishop Gibson had been educated about thirty years before. From thence, in 1715, he went to Queen's college, Oxford, so young, that it was not thought adviseable to admit him, at once, to the discipline and service of a scholarship, which somewhat retarded his proceeding to a bachelor's degree. During his years of residence in the university, he usually passed the long vacation under the hospitable roof of a literary friend and kinsman in London, to whose instruction he often confessed himself indebted for his skill in reading the English language ; in which, a most powerful and harmonious voice, under the direction of a sound judgment,

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VOL. V.

enabled him to excel. At Oxford, he proceeded bachelor of arts in 1721, but did not take his master's degree till 1730.

In the interim, about 1722, he was appointed master of the free grammar school at Appleby, in his native county, on the nomination of Queen's college ; in which society, from the implicit deference so long paid to its authority, the appointment, which is actually in trustees, was at that time partly supposed to rest. This school he taught, with great ability and reputation, for fifty-eight years, without adopting the usual custom, except in one or two instances, of receiving boarders into his house. The endowment, for several years of his mastership, was moderate ; but in his latter years it was enlarged by the division of Sandfordmoor, a common, to a share of which the school-lands were entitled. Boys belonging to the parish paid regularly, for their education, one shilling a quarter, on the quarter day: gentlemen's sons, who were not parishioners, one guinea entrance and two guineas a year; and children of the middle ranks only half that sum. Such was the low price of classical instruction, in the last century, under a teacher who was often styled, by way of eminence, the Busby of the north.

As Mr. Yates was but little acquainted with any branch of the mathematicks, his teaching was chiefly confined to the Greek and Latin languages, though he took more pains to make his scholars good readers of English, than is usual at grammar schools. Of his skill in the Latin language he was indeed justly proud, since few men in his profession were so intimately and practically conversant with the best writers of the Augustan age. In the explanation of their works he was eminently distinguished for a vein of plain good sense, and a judgment generally correct, unless perhaps as it was a little warped, sometimes in advancing con

jectural emendations of the text, or sometimes in exploring the supposed latent meaning of his author. Horace was his favourite amongst the Roman classicks, and he had enriched his own copy of that elegant poet, in 24to, by inserting several critical suggestions : but in whose possession this curious book remains, is unknown.

The young men under his own immediate care generally consisted of two classes, of about twenty each. It was the constant evening exercise of the head class, to translate portions of the Spectator into Latin. In this he accompanied his scholars, and in time completed an entire translation of the second volume, and of several papers in the first, which has been considered as a model of good style for the purpose. Mr. Yates also drew up some Rules of Syntax for the construction of the Latin language, and Rules of Prosody for the use of his scholars, which were transmitted in manuscript from one generation to another. The great merit and usefulness of theses compilations has been acknowledged by many adequate judges, and it was much lamented that he could never be prevailed upon to prepare them for the press; as besides the obvious advantage of being drawn up in the English language, they are more full and satisfactory than most books of the kind in common usage; though branching rather too much into detail for an elementary treatise*.

Mr. Yates never entered into holy orders, an opportunity not occurring of his obtaining an independent station in the church; though few men were better qualified to discharge the duties of a Christian minister. He was strongly attached to the doctrines and discipline of the Church of England; and being very correct and regular in his own

* The Rules of Syntax were published at Newcastle, in 1795, in a thin 16mo volume, by the late Solomon Hodgson, an eminent printer and bookseller, who had been one of Mr. Yates's scholars.

ars.

attention to the duties of religion, he strenuously inculcated the necessity of such attention on the minds of all his schol

He accordingly assembled them in school every Sunday, from seven o'clock till nine, from one till three, and occasionally after evening service till five. The Greek Testament and Grotius de Veritate Christiana Religionis, or any interesting publication of some eminent divine, which had recently appeared in the English language, were the usual lessons of the head class; the second generally construed Castalio's Dialogues; and the younger boys were employed by the usher, in reading successively some portions of the Old or New Testament or of the Whole Duty of Man. Their daily labours in the school were begun and ended with prayers selected from the liturgy; and they all attended church not only on the Sabbath both morning and evening, but every Wednesday and Friday at morning prayers. Those who had attained a proper age were duly prepared for confirmation, and after that ceremony, instructed in the duty and obligation of receiving the Lord's supper. At the great festivals, particularly at Easter, Mr. Yates conducted them to the communion table, and there recommended his precepts by the authority of his example. His system of education, therefore, was well adapted to prepare candidates for holy orders; and he was probably the instructor of more clergymen, than any other teacher of his age: since he furnished nearly half the foundation of Queen's college, Oxford*, and completed the education of numbers, who without the advantages of a university, supplied the lower ranks of the establishment, as curates, or became the masters of provincial schools. For the direction of one of these, who, in 1760, was just entering upon the profession of a schoolinaster, he drew up an Essay towards

* The foundation of this college is confined to the counties of West. moreland and Cumberland.

a just method of instructing youth in a publick School. In this little tract, which, though never published, was handed about in manuscript among his pupils, he details the result of his own experience in many valuable exhortations and remarks.

Mr. Yates's great merit as a master, was a persevering and undivided application to the duties of his profession, and a close attention, not only to the intellectual, but to the moral proficiency of his scholars. By some he has been reckoned severe and cholerick, but that severity was at least much abated in his latter years.

As he took a sort of parental interest in the future welfare of his pupils, both at their setting forth and progress in life, he must have received no common gratification when any of them obtained deserved celebrity in their several pursuits. Amongst his scholars pre-eminence is justly due to that able and upright lawyer Sir Joseph Yates, who whilst one of the Judges of the Court of King's Bench, so often distinguished himself by a firm and dignified resistance to the principles and practice of Lord Mansfield*, and whose opinion in the great cause concerning literary property, though opposed by a majority of the Judges, was confirmed by the final decision of the House of Lords. Mr. Relph, the Theocritus of Cumberland, was perhaps at school one of the contemporaries of the embryo Judge, for he too was amongst the earliest of Mr. Yates's pupils, and died, in the flower of life, the respectable pastor of his native village Şebergham, in 1743f. Dr. Langhorne, a writer of greater celebrity ; Dr. Collinson, the present provost of Queen's college, Oxford ; and Mr. Wilson, afterwards canon of Windsor, witnessed the maturity of Mr. Yates's talents and reputation. At the same period, Mr. Farrer, late vicar of Stanwix, near Car

• Sce Junius's Letter to Lord Mansfield, 14th Nov. 1770. + See Relph's Poems and Life, 2d edit. Carlisle, 1798,

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