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bath was founded on the fact, that God rested on that day from his labours in the work of Creation. For he that hath

• entered into his rest, even he hath rested from his works, as God did from his own. The word, translated rest, in the

' text, is £66aTIOUos. Ainsworth, a man eminently qualified to judge of this subject, translates Exod. xvi. 23, thus : • This is that, which Jehovah hath spoken : To-morrow is the Sabbatism, the Sabbath of holiness to Jehovah.' In the same manner be translates Exod. xxxi. 15; Levit. xxiii. 3; and xxv. 4. In commenting on Exod. xvi. 23, he says, “ SabbaXXV tism, rest : that is, rest, or cessation. But as the Hebrew, Shabbath, is retained by the Holy Ghost in the Greek La66atov, so the Hebrew Shabbathon, here used, is by the apostle, Ea66aticus, in Hebrew iv. 9.” The verse ought therefore to be rendered, .There remaineth therefore a Sabbatism, (or Holy Sabbath) to the people of God;' and this day the following verse proves to be the day on which Christ rose from the dead.

The reason why I have not adduced this passage of Scripture, together with those immediately connected with it, in proof of the doctrine under debate, is, that a comment on a paragraph so obscurely written, and demanding so particular an explanation, must be very long; and would probably be very tedious to many of my audience.

I. The first and great objection of Dr. Paley to the perpetuity of the Sabbath is, that the account of its original institution is found in the following passage : Exod. xvi. 22—30: · And it came to pass, that on the sixth day they gathered twice as much bread, two omers for one man: and all the rulers of the congregation came and told Moses. And he said unto them, This is that which the Lord bath said, Tomorrow is the rest of the holy Sabbath unto the Lord : Bake that which ye will bake to-day, and seethe that ye will seethe: and that which remaineth over, lay up for you, to be kept until the morning. And they laid it up till the morning, as Muses bade. And Moses said, Eat that tv-day; for to-day is a Sabbath unto the Lord : to-day ye shall not find it in the field. Six days ye shall gather it; but on the seventh day, which is the Sabbath, in it there shall be none. And it came to pass, that there went out some of the people on the seventh

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day for to gather, and they found none. And the Lord said unto Moses, How long refuse ye to keep my statutes and my laws ? See, for that the Lord hath given you the Sab bath, therefore he giveth you on the sixth day the bread of two days: abide ye every man in his place; let no man go out of his place on the seventh day. So the people rested on the seventh day.'

The argument, here, is wholly derived from this phraseology: To-morrow is the rest of the holy Sabbath unto the Lord. To-day is a Sabbath unto the Lord : and, the Lord hath given you the Sabbath. In these expressions, Dr. Paley thinks he finds the first institution of the Sabbath. In my view, however, after examining long, and often, the arguments of this respectable Writer, they appear to lead to the contrary conclusion. It is to be observed, that the whole argument depends on the first of these passages; because, that being once introduced, the rest would, in the case supposed, follow it of course ; and because they refer directly to it, and are grounded upon it.

As a preface to the answer which I intend to make to this argument, I remark, that the words of Moses are addressed to

I the elders of Israel,' who had complained to him of the improper conduct of their countrymen, for gathering twice as much bread on the sixth day as they customarily gathered on other days. As Moses had forbidden them to leave of it till morning, and undoubtedly by divine inspiration, the elders supposed their countrymen to have trespassed in collecting this double quantity upon the sixth day. Upon this part of the story I observe,

1. That the division of time into weeks was perfectly known to the Israelites. This is proved by the phrases, 'the sixth day, and the seventh day;' obviously referring to the days of the week, and not to the days of the month. Now I ask, Whence had these people this scheme in dividing time, unless from the history of the creation, traditionally conveyed down to them? This tradition, it will be observed, could come to them from Adam, through six persons; Methuselah, Shem, Abraham, Isaac, Joseph, and Amram.

2. Although in the 5th verse God informed Moses, that the congregation should gather twice as much on the sixth day ;, it seems highly probable, if not absolutely certain, that

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Moses did not inforin Them: for we find, that the elders, who would, I think, certainly bave received this information first, were plainly ignorant of it. The people therefore seem to have supposed the ensuing day to be the Sabbath, of their own accord; and for this reason to have ventured to gather a double quantity of manna, from an apprehension that the labour would be improper and unlawful on that day. Some of them, indeed, went out from a spirit of rebellion and unbelief, and probably under the influence of an idle curiosity, to learn whether the manna would descend on that day, contrary to the prediction of Moses, or not. But this fact affects not the argument in hand.

Let me now ask, whether the first of these declarations of Moses, . This is that, which the Lord hath said, To-morrow is the rest of the holy Sabbath unto the Lord,' is the language of a man, speaking of a thing altogether new and unheard of; of a thing, totally different from all other things hitherto known in the world; or the language of a man referring to something already known, and speaking to persons, who, although acquainted with the institution itself, bad an imperfect knowledge of the proper day on which it was to be holden; and were therefore uncertain with respect to this point? Were two of us to appoint a future day of the month (say the second of December) for the transaction of certain business; a third, who was present, would naturally observe, if such were the fact, that the second of December will be the Sabbath. Or were we conversing upon the same subject on the first of December, the same person would naturally say, “ To-morrow is the Sabbath.” These, you will observe, are the very words of Moses. Here we are unmindful, and through forgetfulness ignorant, that the Sabbath is to take place on that day. Yet we are perfectly acquainted with the institution generally; and that we are acquainted with it, this phraseology is direct proof; because it springs from these very circumstances, and would, in the case stated, be used by

all men.

But, if the institution were wholly unknown, would not the reply be made in terms equivalent to the following: 'We cannot meet on the morrow, or the second of December, for this business : because the legislature has by law forbidden all the inhabitants to do business on that day; and has required them

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to assemble for the worship of God, and to abstain from every secular pursuit." To this answer would naturally succeed inquiriesconcerning the fact, the time, and the end of passing the law; the motives which led to it; the terms in which it was couched; its requisitions, and its penalties. No instance, it is presumed, can be found, in which the conversation concerning a new subject of this nature would be such as is here recorded by Moses, or in which it would not be substantially such as I have recited. On the contrary, the conversation, in the case which I have supposed to be that of the Israelites, is always exactly that of Moses.

In this opinion I am established by the remarkable fact, that the Israelites make no inquiry concerning this supposed novel institution ; although so eminently important, and so plain an object of rational curiosity. The elders themselves, notwithstanding their zoal against the supposed transgression of the people, ask no questions, and make no reply. If the institution were new, and now first made known to them, this conduct is unaccountable. But if they were acquainted with the institution, and doubtful concerning the day, it was perfectly natural.

The reckoning of time at this, as well as many preceding and succeeding periods, it is well known, was extremely lame and confused. The Israelites, with respect to this subject, laboured under peculiar disadvantages. They had been long in a state of servitude; and were of course ignorant, distressed, and naturally inattentive to this and other subjects of a similar nature. A reckoning would, indeed, be kept among them, however ignorant. But it must almost necessarily be imperfect, doubtful, and disputed. Different opinions concerning time would of course prevail.

Should it be said, that the causes which I have specified would make them forget the institution itself; I answer, tbat other nations, as will be seen hereafter, did not forget it, but consecrated the seventh day to religious worship; although many, perhaps all, became ignorant of the day itself. We ourselves often forget the day of the month and week; while yet we are possessed of the most exact reckoning of time, and a perfect calendar; and are reminded of our time by so many books, papers, and other means.

Dr. Paley lays much stress on the words contained in the third declaration of Moses, which I have specified: The Lord hath given you the Sabbath.' In the 230 verse, when the elders had reported to him the supposed transgression of their countrymen, in gathering a double portion of manna on the sixth day of the week, he answers, .This is that, which the Lord hath said ; To-morrow is the rest of the holy Sabbath unto the Lord ;' that is, God declares to you, that the holy rest unto himself is to be holden on the morrow. • Bake that which ye will bake to-day; and seethe that which ye will seethe; and that which remaineth over lay up for you, to be

; kept until the morning. The next day he renewed the same monition; and informed them farther, that there would be no mama on that day; nor on the seventh day at any future period. They were therefore to gather it on six days of the week only, and on every sixth day to provide the necessary supply for the seventh.

Some of the people, however, went out to gather manna on that very day, but found none. Upon this, God says to Moses, • How long refuse ye to keep my commandments? See, for that the Lord hath given you the Sabbath, therefore he giveth you on the sixth day the bread of two days.' The words, 'the Lord hath given you the Sabbath,' are perfectly explained by the original declaration of Moses on this subject, made the preceding day. “To-morrow is the rest of the holy Sabbath unto the Lord. This is the giving of the Sabbath here referred to; and this, I flatter myself, has been shown to be something widely different from originally instituting the Sabbath.

The obvious explanation of these words here given equally explains a passage in Ezekiel xx. 12, and another in Nehemiah ix. 14, quoted by Dr. Paley for the same purpose. The former of these is, . Moreover, also, I gave them my Sabbaths :' the latter, Thou 'madest known unto them thy holy Sabbath. If the passage in Ezekiel refers to the Sabbath at all, which may be doubted, it is merely a repetition of the words of Moses. If it refers to the various fasts and feasts of the Jews, frequently denominated Sabbaths, it has no connection with the subject. The latter of these passages accords more naturally and obviously with the account which has been here given, than with that of Dr. Paley. Neither of them, it

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