תמונות בעמוד

are, for the Reasons alledgd in the Rules for making Verses omitçed in this Colle&ion. Which, as I said before, is composd of a select Number of such usual Words as are of the beft Sense, and that for the Agreeableness of their Sound are most proper to be employ'd in the Rhymes of Heroiek Verse.

Thus 'having given a short Account of the Words omitted in this Dictionary ; it will be necessary to say something of the Method and Disposition of those that are contain'd in it.

In looking for a Word, consider the five Vowels A,E,I,O,U; and begin at the Vowel that precedes the last Consonant of the Word: For Example, to find Perswade; and the Words that rhyme to it, D is the last Çonfonant, A the Vowel that precedes it, look for ADE, and you will find Made, Fode, Invade, and all the other Words of that Rhyme.

In like manner, if a Word end in two or more Consonants, begin at the Vowel that immediately precedes the first of chem: For Example, Land; N is the firit of the final Consonants, A the Vowel that precedes it, See AND, and you will find Band, Stand, Command, &c.

But if a Dipththong, that is to say two or more Vowels together, precedes the last Confonant or Consonants of a Word, begin at the first of those two Vowels ; Thus to find the Rhymes to Disdain, look not for IN, but for AIN, and you will find Brain, Chain, Gain, &c.

To find a Word that erds in a Dipththong, preceded by a Consonant; begin only at the first Vowel of the Dipththong; For Example, to find the Rhymes to Subdue, look for UE, and you will find Clue, Due, Ensue, &c.

All the words that end in a single Vowel, preceded by a Consonant, are found by looking for that Vowel only. Except always the Words that end in Mute E, which are conftantly found by the fame Method that has been already prescrib'd for finding the Rhymes to Perswade, whose final E is filent, and serves only to lengthen the Sound of the A in the laft Syllable.

Except also the Words in Y, which are plac'd under the Ter. mination IE, not only because their Sound is exa&tly the same, but also because they may be indifferently written either with a Y or IE, as Dy or Die, Ly or Lie, Defy or Defie, &c..

The Words that rhyme strictly one to another, tho they diffrin Orthagraphy, are plac'd under the fame Termination. Thus the Words in AIGN, AIN, ANE, EIGN, and EIN, are plac'd together, because their Terminations have exactly the fame Sound: But as there are more Words in AIN, than in "ny other of those Terminations, I have plac'd them all under' AIN; and from their respective Terminations have referred thither. The Verbs are only in the Infinitive, and the Nouns in the Singular ; and from the Terminations to which any Tense, Person, or Participle of a Verb, or any Plural of a Noun rhymes, I have referr'd to che Termination of the Primitive of that Verb or Noun. For Fxample, after the Rhymes in AZE, I say, Also the third Person present of the Verbs, and Plural of the Nouns in AT, EIGH, and Er. The Reader is defir'd to see those Terminations, and from the Primitive Words of them, as Day, Ray, Delay, Neigh, Convey, &c he will easily form Days, Rays, Delays, -Neighs, Conveys, &c. all which rhyme perfectly to the Words in AŻE.

So after the Rhymes in ADE, I say, Also the Participles of the Verbs in AT, EIGH, and Er. See the Verbs of those Termi. nations, and by forming their Participles, you will find they all shyme to the Words in ADE; as from Play, Neigh, Convey, &c. Play'd, Neigh’d, Convey'd, &c.

I have observ'd the like Method thro’ the whole Course of this Di&tionary, as to all the regular Nouns and Verbs: Buc the Tenses, Persons, and Participles of all the Irregular Verbs, and Plurals of all the Irregular Nouns, are found under the several Terminations to which they rhyme.

Thus Fought, Sought, Thought, are plac'd under OUGHT, without referring to IGHT, EEK, INK, the Termination of the Verbs Fight, Seek, Think, from whence they are deriv'd. Men is plac'd under EN, without referring to AŃ, the Termination of its Singular, Man.

Observe therefore, that whenever I fay Perfons, or Participles of Verbs, or Plurals of Nouns, I mean only of such as are Regular in their Formation; the Irregular being always found under the Terminacions co which they rhyme.

Observe also that the Participles and Preterperfect Tenses of all the Regular Verbs being exactly the same, whenever I had occasion to refer to them I have made choice of the Word Participle, rather than Preterperfect Tense.

Some Words are plac'd twice, because they are pronounc'd differently, as Draught, which Dryden rhymes both to the Words in AFT, and OUGHT ; and therefore I have put it under both those Terminations.

But as there are several Words, whose Terminations, tho' different in writing, are pronounc'd alike; fo there are others that agree in Orthography, but differ in Sound. Thus the Words in ASE have cwo different Sounds; some of them are pronounc'd like ACE, others like AZE; the first of which I have plac'd under ACE, the latter under AZE, and from the Termination ASE have referr'd to the two other.

The Words in OVE have three different Sounds, as Love, Prove, Rove; and though they are all plac'd under their own Termination, yet they do not in Strictness rhyme to one another. Therefore to distinguish them from each other, a little



[ocr errors]

Space is left in the Printing between the different Rhymes.

There are also several other Terminations of like Nature, whose different Sounds are distinguish'd in like manner.

I have already said that all the Double and most of the Treble Rhymes are omitted in this Alphabet; yet by observing the Method I am going to propose, the greatest Part of the Double Rhymes may be discover'd.

Most of our Double Rhymes confift in derivative Words, and terminate either in ED, ER, ES, EST, ING, or LÝ.

Derivative Words are those that are form’d from Primitives, which must be either Verbs or Nouns. The Primitive of a Verb is the Infinitive; the Primitive of a Noun is the Nominative Singular.

Now all the Derivative Words, whose Primitives are accented on the last Syllable, and that are form'd by the Increase of a Syllable to their Primitives, thereby become Double Rhymes.

For it is a Rule, (and I think without any Exception) That all Derivatives still retain the Accent of their Primitives, that is to say, on the same Syllable: From whence it follows, that the Accent that was on the last Syllable of a Primitive, or Original Word, must be on the last save one of its Derivative, if it be form'd by the Increase of a Syllable to its Primitive from: whence it confequently follows, that such a Derivative must be a Double Rhyme. For Example, to Evade, and ta

Arise are Primitives, accented upon the laft Syllable, and therefore are Single Rhymes: Evading and Arifing are Gerunds form'd from them by adding the Syllable ING, and being ac. cented on the last fave one, thereby become Double Rhymes. Now to find the Rhymes to Evading, consider it to be a DeriVative, and see the Termination of its Primitive, which is ADE, and the Gerunds of all the Verbs of that Rhyme, that are accented on the last Syllable, muft neceffarily rhyme to Evading : As from Fade, Wade, Perswade, &c. Fading, Wading, Perswading, &c. In like manner to find the Rhyme to Arifing, see ISE, and you will find Advise, Chastise, Despise, and many other, whose Gerunds all rhyme to Arifing ; as Advising, Cho Stiling, &c.

The Observation of this Rule only will lead you to the Difcovery of an Infinite Number of Double Rhymes: For all the Verbs of the English Tongue, whether Regular or Irregular, and of what Termination foever they be, form their Gerunds by adding the Syllable Ing to the Infinitive; and therefore if their Infinitives rhyme, their Gerunds must of Consequence do so too; and if their Infinitives be accented on the last Syllable, their Gerunds by the Increase of the Syllable Ing are accented on the last fave one, and thus become Double Rhymes.


[ocr errors]

The Double Rhymes in ED are generally only the Partici. ples of the Regular Verbs ; of which there are two Sorts : One that will admit of an Elision of the E that precedes their Consonant, and one that will not.

Thofe that will admit of an Elision always ought to be us'd To ; and ic is a Fáult to make Loved two Syllables, and A. mazed three, by which Means they become Double Rhymes ; instead of Lov'd, which is but one Syllable, and Amaz’d, which is but two, and both of them Single Rhymes.

Those that will not suffer the like Elision, and consequently are Double Rhymes, are only the Participles of the Regular Verbs chat end in D or T, or in Müte E preceded by D or

T, as from the Verbs to' Land, Giant, Perswade, and Hate, are form'd the Participles Landed, Granted, Perswaded, Hated : Which will not admit of such an Élision, and therefore are Double Rhytes. The Method of finding the Rhymes to these Words is the same as has been already prescrib'd for finding the Rhymes to the Words in ING ; that is to say,' by seeking the Tezininations of the Infinitives from whence they are form'd; which are AND, ANT, ADE, and ATE.

Many of the Double Rhymes in ER, are either the Comparitive Degrees of Adjectives, and form'd by adding ER to their Poficive, or Nouns Verbal form'd by the addition of ER to their Infinitive. For Example, to find a Rhyme to Plainer the Comparitive of Plain, see the Termination of the Positive, which is AIN, and you will find the Verb to Gein, from whence is form'd the Noun Verbal Gainer ; Vain, from whence the Comparitive Vainer ; Profane from whence Profaner, &c.

The like Method may also be observ'd for finding the Double Rhymes in ES, EST, and LY.

Those in ES, consist of the Third Person Present of the Verbs, and of the Plural Numbers of the Nouns whose final, i Lettters are CE, CH, GE, S, SE, SH, X, or ZE, and that are form'd by adding the Syllable ES to their Primitive.

Those in EST, consist of the Superlative Degrees of Adjectives, form'd by adding EST to their positives, and of the Second Persons Present of Verbs forin'd by adding EST to their Infinitive.

Those in LY, confift in Adverbs form'd from Adje&tives, by adding the Syllable LY to their positive.

This Mechod may be also useful for finding of Rhymes co Original Words. For Example, to Morning, which being aca cented on the last fave one, is a Double Rhyme: See the Termination of that Syllable, which is ORN, and you will find Scorn, Adorn, &c. whose Gerunds are, Scorning, Adorning, &c.

There are also several other Double Rhymes that consif in Derivative Words, and may be found by the fame Method. Of this Nature are several Participles in ÉN, that are form'd

viji The Preface to the Dictionary of RHYMES. irregularly; as Given, Driven, &c: from the Verbs in IVE; Taken, Forsaken, &c. from those in AKE ; and some others.

As for the Treble Rhymes inserted in this Dictionary ;! have not retain'd them as such, but as they rhyme to the Words accented upon the last Syllable; that is to say, to Single Rhymes : Thus Tenderness rhymes as well to Confess, as to Slem derness . Piety to Clarity and

Justify, as well as to Satiety. Bu the Reason why most of the Treble, and all the Double Rhymes are omitted, may be seen in The Rules for making Verses. And so much for the Matter and Method of the following Alpbabet. It may now be expected that I should say something of che Usefulness of it.

And here I will not pretend that it is a work of such a Nature, as can be of any farther Use to the Publick in general, than as it may be a Help and Ease to those Persons who apply themselves to the making English Verses: And they, I prefame, will reap some Advantage by it ; fince in a Moment, and withouc Trouble, they may here find Words, that for a conliderable Space of Time their Thoughts have in vain been labouring to recover.

An Instance of this we daily meet with in Conversation; where we ofcen find our felves at a loss for a Word to express our Meaning : Nay, sometimes for the Names of Persons with whom we are conversant enough, and more than personally acquainted.

Besides, I dare almost affirm, that the Difficulty of finding Rhymes, has been the unlucky Cause that has frequently reduc'd even the best of our Poets to take up with Rhymes that have scarce any Consonance, or Agreement in Sound.

Rhyme is by all allow'd to be the chief Ornament of Ver. sification in any of the Modern Languages; and therefore the more Exact we are in the Observation of it, the greater Applause our Productions of that Nature will deservedly chal

The Italians, the Spaniards, and the French, and among them Men eminent for their Learning and Parts, have not thought their Time mispent. in composing Dictionaries that contain all the Words of their Languages, dispos'd Alphabetically according to their several Rhymes, and which have been printed in all Volumes, and receiv'd with general Approbation.

But if after this, and much more that might be added in Defence of such a Work, any should be of Opinion that my Time has been thrown away in this Composition; to fuch Í freely confess, that while I was about it, I have often reflected on the Operofe nihil agit of Seneca, and apply'd it to my self.

lenge and find


« הקודםהמשך »