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agriculture than manufactures. Halifax, Wakefield, and Leeds, enjoy only a few of the advantages that the coun. tries I now describe possess in perfection; and the influence of these markets is felt for hundreds of miles around them. It is those alone who have seen and compared the natural capabilities of the two countries, who can form an idea of the infinite disproportion that subsists between them; yet it is this country which nature has formed, as it were, with the sole view of showing to what an astonishing degree of perfection manufactures and trade may be carried. It is this very country our short sighted politicians despise, and by laws which nothing but ignorance could dictate, and insanity continue, is rendered a dreary solitude. The people, by artificial restraints, are deprived of the very means of subsistence, and driven in despair to seek for refuge elsewhere. While the heart bleeds for individual distress thus produced, it is impossible to say whether contempt for the folly, or indignation at the atrocity of such proceedings should prevail. It is clear, however, that the minister who passively and inadvertently permits these things to be done, is far lefs to blame than those are, who, seeing these great evils, are at no pains to develope to the minister and the ration at large, the alarming consequences of not affording timely redress of such intolerable grievances.
NOTICES OF IMPROVEMENTS NOW GOING ON IN INDIA. The benefits that would result to the community from a free correspondence 'carried on upon liberal prir:ciples, are inconceivably great. This is made particularly evident by the perusal of Dr Anderson's correspondence in India, the continuation of which I received by the
Raymond late from Madras.
In every page of at correspondence, new facts are discovered, and sirissing. views of improvements suggested. The culture of the silk worm, over a very extensive tract of country, is already in a great measure effected. And the opuntia is now reared in such abundance, as to afford no room to doubt, that when the cochineal insect arrives, it will soon become a general object of culture. Besides the white lac already mentioned, many other useful productions, by Dr Anderson's influence, have been brought to Madras from China, Sumatra, and the other islands in the Indian
And in these researches, many valuable plants have been discovered that never were suspected to be there, particularly the bread-fruit tree, which was supposed to be found no where else on the globe but in the South Sea islands. The general spirit with which these enquiries are now carrying on in India, will appear from the following letters, which I willingly insert, from a full conviction that they will afford much pleasure to every well disposed mind.
Sir, Mr R. Clerk dep. sec. to Dr James Anderson. The supercargoes at Canton, having, in consequence of an application made by this government at your recom. mendation, sent here, in the ship General Abercrombie, eight boxes containing 200 tallow trees, and 200 lacquer trees. I am directed to acquaint you that the commander will be directed to deliver those plants to your charge. I am, doc.
Fort St George, Feb. 14. 1792.
Dr James. Anderson, to the honourable Sir Charles Oakeley,
bart, acting governor, and council, Madras.
HONOURABLE SIRS, I am favoured with your notice of the arrival of trees, which are no doubt those I recommended to be sent from
China ; but as it appears by your correspondence with De Berry that you disapprove of a botanical garden, and expect that he will only take care of the nopals, I am totally at a loss how to dispose of them.
I can only say that the introduction of cochineal is a distant object, and the garden at Marmalon may be use« fully employed, as I have long ago stated to your board; and as the honourable the court of directors have approved, in ordering these plants from China, I am unable to recommend him to take care of them, till your farther pleasure is known.
As the gentlemen at the factory have so handsomely acquitted themselves, I must recommend that in your first letter to Canton you will desire plants of the can-la, chu and choui-la-chu, mentioned in my letter to o your board, 24th November 1789, to be sent here.
As there are now plantations of mulberries through the whole extent of the coast, and as it will be of good consequence to extend the cultivation of the nopal, at those places where it may be cultivated without any additional expence, I should be glad that you give directions to the postmaster general to receive letters, weighing eight ounces, which will enable me to transmit them. I expect that
will favour me with a list of the superintendants of mulberry plantations, and an account of the charges they have made. I am, dc.
Fort St George, Feb. 15.
Cha. N. White' sec. to Dr James Anderson. Sir, I am directed to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 15th, inst, and to acquaint you that an application will be made to the supercargoes at Canton, agreeably to your recommendation, and that the postmaster will be directed to receive letters from you, for the purpose you mention, in such number as may not increase the weight of the tappals beyond what has been ordered, to prevent delay in conveyance of the posts.
Mr Berry was directed not to put the company to any additional expence on account of the botanical garden, until the court of directors shall have signified their pleasure respecting that establithment; and as the reception of China plants cannot be attended with any increase of charges, the honourable the governor in council approves of your recommending them to his care.
You will be furnished with a list of the mulberry plantations, and an account of their expences, when all the superintendants have reported the information required of them by some late orders from government.
I am, dc.
Feb. 18. 1792
Dr James Anderson, to colonel Kydd, Bengal. DEAR SIR, I have the pleasure to send by captain Pitman, who has been obliging enough to take charge of them, six tallow trees, and six lacquer trees, lately arrived from China.
I have not yet opened the box with the barometers you sent. As captain Kydd, and the gentlemen in Maissore have been so nobly employed, I have not ventured to divert their attention ; but whenever the barometers can be at. tended to, in the manner you have specified, the experiments of measuring the heights will no doubt enable a better judgement to be formed of what the different countries are fittest for, than any thing we are yet possessed of.
Feb. 27. 1792.
I am, doc.
Dr James Anderson, to captain Simpson, commanding the ship General Abercrombie.
Dear Sir, UNDERSTANDING that you mean to touch at every port on the Malabar coast, in your way to Bombay, I beg leave to trouble you with sixteen wine baskets, filled with three different kinds of nopal plants, that have been raised here for the culture of cochineal, (viz.) from his majesty's garden at Kew, from the French king's garden on the isle of France, and from China.
As the baskets are filled, and closely packed with nopal branches, which can receive no injury, you may throw them into the ship's hold, or stow them away ner the least inconvenient, taking care only that they may be readily come at, as I wish you to distribute some at every place you touch at, to such persons as will under, take to plant them.
I have likewise the pleasure to send you nine copies of the publications I have made on the subject. Sincerely wilhing you health and a happy voyage,
I am, br.
March 7. 1792.
Captain Simpson, to James Anderson, esq. physician general.
DEAR Sir, I HAD the pleasure of receiving your letter, of yesterday's date, with nine sets of each of your publications, accompanied with a request that I would take charge of sixteen wine baskets filled with three different kinds of nopals, that have been raised in your garden at Madras for the culture of cachincal.
I most chearfully accept the charge, and shall not fail to distribute a part of each sort, with a set of your publications, along the Malabar coast, and at Bombay, to such persons as I judge will pay attention to a plant so easily brought forward, and that ultimately may prove so advantageous to that side of India.
I shall hereafter have the pleasure of acquainting you in what situation, and with whom I have placed them, and have not the smallest doubt of their succeeding perfectly
I have the honour to be Sir, doc. March 8. 1792.
to your wishes.
Dr James Anderson, to the honourable Sir Charles Oakeley,
bart. acting governor and council.
HONOURABLE Sirs, By captain Simpson, who brought the tallow and lacquer trees in safety from China, I have sent to the Malabar coast five cart loads of nopals, chiefly of the sort that came from Kew garden, and having a perfect reliance on the integrity and attention of this gentleman, I have the honour to inclose the copy of his answer to me, which you will be pleased to transmit to the government at Bombay, with a requisition on your part, that the plants captain Simpson delivers be properly taken care of, as there can