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method you shall think most persuasive and effectual.
I have now the heartfelt satisfaction of seeing my wife and children going regularly and profitably by fire, and not by water; and though the original discoverer of this astonishing ressort interieur, for moving the human mind, I am so far from thinking of applying for a patent to secure the profit of the invention to myself and family, that I shall put this letter into the post office, without a pang of regret at having let the secret out of my possession. I cannot help however expecting that the parliament of England, who have given my old acquaintance and eleve, William Forsythe, three thousand pounds, for a mix, ture of cow dung and old rubbish, to restore fruit trees to their bearing, may be induced, on a proper application, to give me a reward for a mixture of common sense and dear bought experience, to restore country places, and country gentlemen, to their pro, per bearing, without any ablagneațion, incision, or disturbance whatsoeyer.
I hope to get down to the country next week, tu see my wheat put into the ground, and to attend our approaching meeting for our new inland navigation, when I shall send you a more particular account than I have done hitherto, of my experiments relating to the fertilization of land by leguminous crops, and the economy of manure by the drill : in the mean time I must tell you an ingenious plan my wife has fallen upon, to promote the happiness of the lower sort of people in this neighbourhood,
She has caused to be printed and circulated, a set of recipes for comfortable daily fare, in wholesome savoury food, prepared from cheap materials, two or three to ehuse out of, for each day of the week.
She has therein accurately described the methods of making excellent pottages of potatoes, seasoned with herrings, or with soy; which last condimentary liquor she has contrived to prepare from our own leguminous plants, of carrots, of onions, coleworts, of cabbages, of lettuces, of beets, and of turnips.
She has shewn them the method of rendering their houses comfortable by means of flues, or little portable stoves, and has added a number of little useful remarks, relating to the prevention of disease, by cleanliness, temperance, the use of ales, and nourishing liquors, instead of ardent spirits ; and concluded the whole with some plain and pertinent advices on the subject of morals, and the education of children ; not without some excellent hints relating to industry and general economy. While thus employed it' is surprising to see the progress fhe has made in gardening, and the knowledge of garden crops cultiva-' ted in the field.; and by attention to the habits and wants of the
people, is as fit to write a good statistical account of the parish and country as any clergyman in Scotland.
While my help mate is thus virtuously employed, in riding her little pad about the doors, I am scou. ring the fields on my charger of a hobby horse, 'and smoaking along the roads, to look at bridges, and various objects of rural police, when I can find lei
sure from farming and literature and social intercourse.
The other day when I had come home from a fatiguing excursion, and was not in the best humour in the world, my wife took up the Seasons of Lambert, and by way of comforting me, read me he following passage from them, with which I thall conclude this Alexandrian' epistle.
“ Heureax ! qui loin du monde, utile à sa patrie,
TO THE MEMORY
ROBERT ADAM, ARCHITECT,
OF A RESPECTABLE FAMILY,
Long remarkable for producing worthy and useful citizens;
which would not permit Them to exercise, in its full exent,
ARE DEDICATED BY THE AUTHOR.
THE EFFECTS OF WATER ON MACHINERY. Hint: ON THE BEST WAY OF APPLYING WATER TO MACHINERY
AS A MOVING POWER, IN A LEVEL COUNTRY, WHERE NO KIND OF CASCADES IS TO BE MET WITH.
Continued froz p. 257. In the foregoing part of this essay it has been shown, that plain float-boards can never be employed with economy on wheels that are to be moved by water, where a considerable fall can be commanded. But the case is reversed in a level country
i plain float-boards, alone, that water can be made to act as a power,, for the moving of machinery, where advantage is meant to be taken of the gentle flow of a current without falls.
The enlarging the breadth of the wheel has also been condemned, as rather hurtful than beneficial,
for it is upon
where a fall of water can be commanded. But in a a flat country this rule also is reyersed; for where the current is gentle, it is a rule without exception, that the broader the wheel is, or in other words, the longer the float-boards are, with the greater force will the water act upon machinery as a moving power.
In all cases of this kind, also, the wheel, for obvious reasons, ought to be made of as large a diameter as can be conveniently done.
In short the float-boards ought to be of such a length as to go across the whole breadth of the stream and were it ten, twenty, or thirty feet in breadth, the wheel ought to be of the same breadth, having supports for the axle at each side of the river.
Where the breadth of the wheel is very great, it will be obvious that there ought to be two, three, or more wheels fixed upon the same axle, all of the same diameter, for the purpose of fixing the floate boards, and keeping them firm in every part.
Wherever water is found to move forward with a progressive motion, it descends from a higher to a lower situation, by reason of the pressure of its own weight always tending towards the lowest place. The greater, therefore, the inclination is of the surface over which it flows, the greater will lw its rapidity; and, in proportion to the quantity of water moving forward, will be its strength, when moving with the same degree of velocity.
While water is thus moving, if any object be laid across the stream, it will either stop the current, so as to form a dam, or it will be carried down the stream