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We have already seen, however, that the word kis is obliged to perform the double office of definitive and possessive, thus,
" His bouse is better than bers, but hers is finer than bis." In which example, the first bis, stands as a definitive, and as such requires to be joined with the noun it defines ; and the last bis, stands as a possessive, and requires not the noun to be added.
In like manner, should we attempt to express the meaning of this sentence, by repeating the names of the persons, without using any pronomial word whatover, we shall find that these genitives, as they have been called, may be in all cases applied equally in place of the definitives, my, tby, &c. and the possefsives, mine thine, &c. like the word bis, without any change. Thus, the sentence,
James's bouse is better than Jabn’s, but Jobn's is finer than James's." is equivalent to “My bouse is better than bis, but bis is finer chan MINE, or MY HOUSE."
Here the word James's performs alike the part of my, and of mine. For, similar to mine, we say as above, James's, or similar to my house, we might equally say, “ finer than James's house." In like manner we may either say, as above, “ better than John's," or at pleasure, “ better than Yobn's bouse ;"> the word house, or the noun explained by the definitive, being in all cases of this sort, either added or suppressed at the pleasure of the composer, which cannot be done either with the words mine or bers. To render this still more plain, I shall vary tence in
ways, as in the table annexed.
Hers, or her house, nat hers house But hers, or her house
But James's, or James's house
is finer than
James's, or James's house
But Ann's or Ann's house
Theirs or their house, not theirs house But theirs, or their house
Ours, or our house, not ours house
FIRST. My house, not mine
Her house, not bers
is better than
Ann's, or Ann's house
Mine, or my heuse, not mine house
But mine, or my house
Yours, or your house
N. B. In this table all the words in the first column, my, ber, &c. are definitives. Those in the second
column, are all of that class of words which we have called pronouns possessive; as are those of the
From a consideration of this table, it clearly appears, that the supposed English genitives perform, in all cases, a double office, exactly analogous to that which is performed by the word bis ; which, by not having been adverted to, has augmented the perplexity that these words have occasioned in our grammatical arrangements.
To be continued.
ESSAY ON WATER.
CONSIDERED AS A MOVING POWER ON MACHINERY.
If a considerable which is appended to one side of a
Continued from p. 210.
wheel that rests upon a pivot in the center, and none at all upon the other side of it, it will follow that the side with the weight appended to it will always descend, and the light side rise upwards, so as to come municate a continued rotatory motion to the wheel.
It is in this way that water becomes a moving power, by its dead weight ; for if buckets be so fixed upon the wheel as to have their mouths upwards, and open to receive a stream of water as they pass under it, at, or near the top of the wheel on one side, so as to descend full, the mouth of these buckets must be turned downwards at the bottom of the wheel, if immoveably fixed upon it, so as to ascend empty. The inequality of weight between the two sides of the wheel must thus continue as long as the water flows into the buckets, and of course the rotatory motion of the wheel must continue also.