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AGRICULTURE. COMPARATIVE TRIAL OF DIFFERENT KINDS OF OATS. IN former number of this work some observations were thrown out, tending to show the great benefits that would accrue from an exact knowledge of the distinguishing qualities of the different varieties of each of the kinds of grain that are cultivated in Europe. The following experiment made by Mr Crette de Palluel, a noted cultivator at Dugny in France, tends to confirm these remarks.

“ I sowed,” says he,“ several kinds of oats, viz. from Artois, grain of a very fañe quality ; of Champaigne, the grain smaller and blacker; of Normandy, a grain white as barley; and the native corn of this country.

Result. “That of Normandy, though having a hard and thick husk, run into ear, and ripened ten days before the others; that of Champaigne was five days later, the corn of Artois, and that of this country were still five days later.

“ The Normandy and Champaigne oats produce most straw ; but they are very easily shaken.”

This is rather an uncommon circumstance in this country; for I third most of the oats that are early and very easily shaken with us, are not nearly so productive of straw as some other sorts.

“I think, however," adds he, that the white oat of Nor. mandy might be cultivated with advantage in this country, because of its coming soon to maturity, which would enable the farmer to reap it before his wheat ; and also because it weighs more than twenty pound the setier, more than the same measure of our own kind of oats."

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It is to be regretted that Mr Palluel has not specified the proportional produce of each on the same space of ground.

It is farther to be regretted that our countrymen should, be so shy at making comparative experiments of this sort. The benefits that would be derived from these would be great.

EXPERIMENTS ON GYPSUM AS A MANURE, When gypsum was noticed in this work as a manure, Bee, vol. i. p. 297, it was hinted that probably its effects might be different in America from what we experienced in Eu-' rope, chiefly because the grasses which naturally spring up there, are probably different from those that are commonly cultivated here. It even appeared from these experiments, that this manure operated more powerfully on one kind of vegetable production than another; the effects on grass, were great, on wheat, scarcely perceptible.

The following experiments tend to show, not only that it operates differently on different vegetables, but also its comparative effects when tried with some other manures. The experiments were made by the same Mr Crette de Palluel; and both the former and this are recorded in the memoirs of the Royal Society of Agriculture in Paris.

Experiment first. “ I divided a piece of lucerne," says he, "consisting of four arpents, into four equal parts The soil was all of equal quality.

« On the first division I caused be sowed thirty bue shels of peat albes, which cost five livres. “ On the second thirty bushels of gypsum,

which cost five livres ten sols.

“ On the third, thirty bushels of pigeons dung, value six livres.

“ And on the fourth, nothing.

Result. When compared with the last divison, the first produced fifteen bunches of lucerne more ; the second afforded only twelve of excels; the third produced thirty bunches. more than the last."

Experiment second. “ The same quantities of each manure were laid on a moist meadow, of four arpents, divided equally in the same manner,

“ The peat alhes produced nearly the same effect as above ; the.gypsum made a great difference iir the crop » the grass pushed out much stronger, and was of a better, quality, and it yielded twenty-two bunches more than that which had nothing.

“ Pigeons dung has long been known to improve moist; meadows very much, by extirpating bad kinds of grasses, bringing white clover in its stead, and augmenting the crop. It produced one fourth more."

These experiments still are less accurate than could be wished ; yet it clearly appears


gypsum, as a manure, in this instance, operated more powerfully than peat alhes, on moist meadow ground, though less so on lucerne. It is seldom we can get all that we desire, but when we ad. vance a step, our labour has not been in vain.


Without a rigid economy, agriculture can never be carried to its highest pitch of perfection; and for the want of it much waste is sustained, and great losses incurred in many parts of Britain. In other countries they are often obliged to have recourse to expedients for supporting their live stock which we would despise ; but which we might often imitate with great profit. The following affords a lesson of this sort :

“ In the month of June," says Mr Crette de Pallucl,"foreseeing a scarcity of forage, and desirous of finding a food for my sheep without consuming my vetches, I fell upon

an expedient that succeeded with me perfectly well. I sent a person every day to prune twenty elm trees, and leave the branches scattered in the way where my sheep were to pass. These sheep, to the number of 559 made an abundant repast on the leaves, and then the branches were bound up into fagots. My Theep had no other nourishment till the harvest was got in. The elms have suffered nothing ; as I took care they should be properly pruned. I also, in the months of September and October, pruned my willows and poplars, all the branches of which I preserved in a dry.state ; and this food was of great use to me during the winter for my sheep. I can affirm that those which were not intended for the butcher, lived upon nothing else but these branches.

“ I also fattened 300 sheep with potatoes and cabbages, for which I got a very good price.”

I have long ago remarked, that theep can be easily and well sustained during a storm of snow. in winter, upon branches of fir trees, thus cut down daily, and given to them. Firs can be reared almost.on every sheep farm, without difficulty, and if plantations for this purpose were duly made, and carefully thus applied, many thousand head of sheep might be annually saved, that at present inevitably perish. Yet I never heard of a plantation that had been made for that purpose ; and very few that had ever been applied in that way at any time. The sheep that are thus lost may be said to be sacrificed by igno, rance on the altar of pride.



CHILDREN are fond of listening to stories. Might not those who are about them, while curiosity is all awake, and the memory retentive, avail themselves of this circumstance, to introduce the most interesting parts and passages of real history, instead of ghosts and hobgoblins ?

True it is few are able to do it in a proper manner,

viva voce; but the attempt properly made, might improve both the speaker and the audience.


TO CORRESPONDENTS. The very polite remarks of Joseph Scaliger, though the arguments owe their origin chiefly to misunderstanding the opinions he combats, than any thing else, and are not therefore convincing, should have had a place as soon as possible, except for the same reason that induced the Editor to postpone the paper to which they allude, for more than an year and an half, viz. the fear that the subject could prove but very little interesting to a great majority of his readers. It is unfortunate that that paper should have been so inaccurately written as to give rise to these mistakes ; and the writer of it would no doubt wish to explain farther, which would aug, inent the evil, by disgusting his readers ; so that it is more adviseable for the Editor to leave things as they are. Indeed the matter is, in itself, of so little consequence, that readers may judge of it as they please, without any material detriment to the cause of literature: and so much was the Editor convinced of this, that, had it not been judged necessary to pave the way for another, which he thinks of greater importance, it would not have been admitted at all. The Editor's best thanks are due for the very obliging terms in which this writer has expressed himself. It shall be carefully preserved.

The slight notices concerning Sir William Bruce, &c. are thankfully received ; farther particulars are requested.

The elegant and interesting statistical communications respecting America are thankfully received; together with the friendly hints that accompanied them, of which the Editor hopes to avail himself.

The singular letter of C. Skene is a great literary curiosity, and shall appear with the very first opportunity.

The Editor has been favoured with an interesting communication from the ingenious Miss Rhodes, respecting the ing of silk worms in Brie tain, which shall appear in our next

Pbilologus is respectfully inforıned that there are hundreds of valuable pieces in the possession of the Editor, of a much older date than the cominunication referred to, which he has not found it pofs ble to overtake; though, from particular circumstances, others of a later date must have been occasionally inserted. With the utmost desire to oblige all his correspondents, and at the same time not to disappoint his other readers, he must be allowed to adopt the conduct that seems the best calculated to fulfil both these objects at once. He fears his desire for avoiding the imputation of partiality, sometimes leads jim farther than it ought to do.

It is with regret that the Editor declines the task that Merina requests of him, as he considers himself to be by no means qualified to perform it in a proper manner.

The biographical memoir by R. W. is received, and shall appear with the first convenience. Articles of this sort are very acceptable.

W.W. says that the MOURNING MOTHER, inserted in p. 65th of this volume, has been by mistake, ascribed to him, and desires that this pube fic notice of it may be given

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