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which we cultivated with the greatest ardour for seven months at Upsal. I was his best friend, and I never had 'any who was more dear to me. How sweet was that intimacy! With what pleasure did we see it increase from day to day! The difference, even of our characters, was useful to us. His mind was more severe, more attentive ; he observed more slowly, and with greater car e A noble emulation animated us. As I despaired of ever becoming as well instructed in chemistry as him, 'I abandoned it, he also ceased to study botany with the

same ardour, to which I had devoted myself in ' a parti'cular 'manner. We continued thus to study different branches of science ; and when one of us excelled the other, he acknowledged hím for his master. We disputed the palm in ichthyology ; but soon I was forced to yield, and I abandoned that part of natural history to 'him, as well as the amphybia. I succeeded better than him in the knowledge of birds and insects, and he no longer tried. to excel in these branches. We marched tog ther as equals in lithology, and the history of quadrupeds. Wher. one of us made an observation, he communicáted it to the other ; scarce a day passed in which one did not learn from the other some new and interesting particular. Thus emulation excited our industry, and mutual assistance aided our efforts. In spite of the distance of our lodgings, we saw each other every day. At last I set out for Lap"land, -he went to London. He bequeathed to me his manu'scripts and his books.

" In 1735 I went to 'Leyden. I knew not what was become of Artedi. "I thought he had been in London. I found him there. I recounted my adventures; he communi'cated his to me.

He was not rich, and therefore was unable to be at the expence of taking his degrees in medicine. I recommended him to Seba, who engaged him to pub

lith his work on fishes. Astedi went to join him at. Amsterdam.

“ Scarcely had I finished my fundamenta botanica. I communicated it to him; he let me see his philoso-, phia ichthyologica. He proposed to finish as quickly as pofsible the work of Seba, and to put the last hand to it. He showed me all his manuscripts which I had not seen : I was pressed in point of time, and began to be impatient at being detained so long. Alas! if I had known this was the last time I should see him, how should I have prolonged it!

“ Some days after, as he returned to sụp with Seba, the night being dark, he fell into the canal, Nobody perceived it, and he, perished. Thus died, by water, this great ichthyologist, who had eyer delighted in that ele, ment.

“I learned his fate-I flew-I saw his melaneholy remains. I shed tears; at last I resolved to preserve his glory, and to fulfil my engagements. I procured his papers with a good deal of difficulty from his host, who wanted to sell them, by,, auction. Mr Chiffort bought them, and gave, them to me. In spite of business, with which I was then overwhelmed, I stole from it the time that was required for revising the works of my unfortunate friend. Who could, better edịt his works than him who was full of his stile, of his ideas, of his method and manner? I passed six months, in Holland to complete, this edition ; happy, if I have been able properly to fulfil this last duty to my friend, and to secure an eternal fame for him, who was carried off by such a premature fațe. I shall rejoice in having snatched from oblivion, the greatest work of that kind which exists. Artedi haş rendered that science the most, easy of all, which before his time was the most dif ficult."

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Thus, does the republic of letters ‘owe to Lin næus this elementary treatise on fishes. But as the edition of Linnæus was not now to be had, having been published in the year 1738, Mr Walbaum has now presented edition of the whole of Artedi's works, with a supplement containing the discoveries that have been made in that branch of natural history since his time.

The first volume of this new edition, which was printed in the year 1788, contains the biblioteca ́ ichthyologicaof Artedi, which contains the literary history of that science, commencing several years before the Christian æra, and comes down to our own time.

The second, which was published in the year 1789, presents the philosophia ichthyologica of Artedi, improved by Walbaum, who was benefitted by the writings of Monro, Camper, Kætseuter and others. Here also are added, tables containing the system of fishes by Ray, Dale, Schaeffir, Linnæus, Gowan, Scopola, Klein, and Gronovius.

The third volume, published 1792, completes the collection of Artedi's works. It contains technical defini. tions. After the generic and individual characters, come the

names and Latin phrases of Artedi,-the synonymes of the best naturalists,—the vulgar names in English, German, Swedish, Russian, Danish, Norwegian, Dutch, and Samoyed the season and the countries where every kind is found, their varieties, their description, and observations. The modern discoveries, even to our own times, are added, so that in this part is collected, the observations of Gronovius, Brunicb, Pennant, Forster, Klein, Bloch, Gmelin, Hasslequist, Broussonet, Leske, Buish, Linnæus, and other great examiners of nature.

This work concludes with the new genera, created since the death of Artedi ; yet those of Klein, Linnæus, Gronovius, Block, Forster, Gowan, Forskall, Brunnick, Seopole, Hermann, and Houtuyn.












To the Editor of the Beco I HAVE endeavoured to show that taste is an artificial organ of perception, created in a healthy, temperate, uncorrupted individual, by the contemplation of nature. This discriminating power has received the name of that common sense which relishes and distinguishes, by the mouth and palate, the flavour of our nourishment, or of noxious food; because it may be considered as a spiritual palate, which apprehends and relishes the essential qualities of nature or art, separate from their grosser substance, leading us thereby to the preference of those things that are most conducive to the nourishment and growth of our immortal spirits. I have considered how this taste is conducive to the fitness, excellence, and beauty of our domestic dwellings, and of our public edifices, and am desirous to apply the same principles of argu

VOL. xi.

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ment, to the good government, and enjoyment of doinestic and social life.

I shall consider this subject, first, as taste is productive of our own immediate tranquillity and happiness: secondly, as tending to the tranquillity and

ppiness of our families : and lastly, as promoting the tranquillity and happiness of the community with which we are connected, and ultimately that of the public at large.

First, As to our own immediate tranquillity and happiness. Who is there that does not sometimes feel that there is a void, a chasm, a somewhat in the mind, that feels confused, disordered, and ruinous, yet seems as if it might be repaired?

The disturbance and languor that is occasioned by this frame of mind, is removed by active business; some engaging pursuit that causes not remorse; by innocent amusements of all kinds, in succession ; and by bodily exercises in the field. When we are in health, we see clearly about us in a'moral sense, are satisfied with ourselves, and pleased with our companions. When pursuing our present objects of desire with alacrity, we, at the same time, look back with self gratulation on the past, and look forward to the continuance of an agreeable and creditable em. ployment, we are in that complex, but well arran, ged state of body and mind, which approaches moft nearly to perfect happiness.

Now that this state cannot be approached, without the intervention of taste, will, I hope, sufficiently appear from the following considerations.

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