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PRINCIPLES

OF

ENGLISH COMPOSITION

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OF

ENGLISH COMPOSITION

THROUGH

ANALYSIS AND SYNTHESIS

A TEXT-BOOK FOR

THE SENIOR CLASSES OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS

AND FOR PUPIL-TEACHERS

BY

P. GOYEN

INSPECTOR OF SCHOOLS

London

MACMILLAN AND CO.

AND NEW YORK

1894

All rights reserved

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897

G724 pri Iduc. Library

PREFACE

As a means of teaching composition and the principles that

govern sentence structure, analysis of sentences has completely broken down and become, outside the teaching profession, entirely discredited. Pupils parse and parse, analyse and analyse, for years of their school life, and in the end are ignorant of what constitutes a good sentence and wholly without ability to write one. The cause of this unsatisfactory result is not, I think, difficult to dis

cover.

The parsing of single words, however well done, can be made to bear only on the syntax of single words—quite a trifle in sentence structure. Analysis, however, includes single words, phrases, and clauses-the whole mechanism of the sentence however complex, and, of course, ought to bear on the syntax of the whole mechanism ; but unfortunately it has been made by the books to concern itself only with breaking down and classifying. Its sole aim has been to dismember the sentence and to place the disjecta membra under their appropriate headings. This is all very well from the point of view that decomposition and classification are the sole end of grammar; but ought they to be so regarded ? Is not synthesis as important as analysis ? Is it not necessary that the young student should be trained not only to decompose and classify, but also to compose, that is, to arrange words, phrases, and clauses in their most effective setting? Analysis is purely destructive; it destroys beauty of thought and beauty of

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