תמונות בעמוד

6 But go rather to the lost sheep of the house of Israel.

7 And as ye go, preach, saying, The kingdom of heaven is at hand.

8 Heal the sick, cleanse the lepers, raise the dead, cast out devils : freely ye have received, freely give.

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was sown.

mighty works; and, no doubt, to repeat They are, however, found in the Vulgate, his sayings and discourses ; thus calling Syriac, Ethiopic, and Arabic versions, and forth prayer, and incipient faith, and spi- in the Cambr. and Alex. mss.,

and in severitual desires, and disposing many at

ral of the fathers; nor for such an interleast to receive the gospel when it should, polation can any good reason be conjecin its complete form and its fulness of tured. The allegation that the twelve evidence, be proposed to them; for the apostles, during this their first mission, subject of their preaching was to be raised no dead to life, or it is thought the “ The kingdom of heaven is at hand.” fact would have been mentioned, proves Great immediate good was to be done, nothing; for neither do we read that they and the seed of a large future harvest “cleansed any lepers," and yet that power

Nor are we to understand is expressly committed to them. It may, the prohibition of our Lord so strictly as however, be granted, that they did not, at to suppose that the Gentiles who mingled that time, raise any dead to life; yet to with the Jews, many of whom were argue from this against the clause in the either proselytes or well-affected to many text, entirely overlooks one of the main truths in the Jewish religion, or that the circumstances connected with the exerSamaritans they might meet with, were cise of these powers; that they were not to be wholly neglected. Christ himself to be wielded at the judgment and disdid not despise this class of men, though cretion of man. The occasions for their he too was sent, as he sent his apostles, exercise were presented to them by a "to the lost sheep of the house of Israel,” special Providence, and the powers were that is, chiefly and principally. "The

to be exercised on consideration, prayer, WAY of the Gentiles" means the road and looking up to God for intimations leading to the Gentile nations; therefore of his will. It could never be intended they were not to go to the Gentiles as that they should raise all the dead to life, nations; and into any city of the Sama- whom they might meet on their journey, ritans they were not to enter, that is, to carried out for burial. Our Lord did not fulfil their mission. These were to be thus use his power, as they well knew; visited in the fulness of time. But many but that, when it should seem to be for individual Gentiles in Judea were as well the glory of God, and when they were prepared, by their previous knowledge of under the impulse of that superior power the Jewish scriptures, to receive benefit by which alone the attempt could be from their mission as the Jews, and pro- effectual. No such occasions might or bably many individual Samaritans also, probably did occur on this journey; but as their Master himself had found.

that power was with them which was adVerse 8. Raise the dead.-Because we equate to the case, had the wisdom of have no account of the apostles raising God so appointed ; and it continued with the dead before the ascension of Christ, them through their whole apostolic life, it has been contended that these words but still subject to be exerted only under have been interpolated; in favour of special impulses. It is further to be obwhich, it is pleaded, that they are not served, that the discourse is not to be found in several MSS. and versions. considered as applicable only to their first


9 Provide neither gold, nor silver, nor brass in your purses,

10 Nor scrip for your journey, neither two coats, neither shoes, nor yet staves : ® for the workman is worthy of his meat.

11 'And into whatsoever city or iown ye shall enter, inquire who in it is worthy; and there abide till ye go thence.

d Mark vi. 8; Luke ix. 3; xxii. 35.

e I Tim. 5. 18; Luke x. 7.

• Or, get.

f Luke x. 8.


limited apostolical journey, although that shows that one was permitted. Two staves was the occasion which called it forth. were therefore prohibited, as two coats and See note on verse 17.

two pairs of sandals : should, therefore, Freely ye have received, 8c. — They their staff' be broken or lost, they were to were to receive no money, no compensa- look to the kindness of those to whom tion, but the bare support afforded by a they preached to furnish them with this free hospitality; although, when they part of the necessary equipment of an healed diseases, the gratitude of many eastern traveller, as well as for a supply might offer them considerable gifts. They of sandals and coats when needed; so abwere to be decently supported in their solute was to be their trust in God, so work; and this was to be the standing rule free were they to keep themselves from of future times as to ministers, and its li- those anxieties which superfluity always

but whether this support was to be brings with it; and yet such care was taken given in kind or money, circumstances to remind the people of the duty of a liberal may determine. The intention of the hospitality to guests sent by such a Masrule is to prohibit making a gain of god- ter and on such an errand, that they liness, and to prevent the ministry from might want nothing necessary to health being regarded as a lucrative profession. and comfort, when it was seen that their They were therefore to go forth in full de- necessities called for supplies; for, adds pendence upon Providence, and, under our Lord, the labourer is worthy of his that, the good-will of well-disposed men. meat, tus tpoons, of his maintenance, inNomoney was to be taken in their purses, eis cluding here all necessaries, but not Tas Swvas, girdles, which the Orientals and money. Michaëlis, who holds that Mateven Romans used as purses. Nor were thew's Gospel was first written in Hebrew, they to take a scrip, anpa, the bag in which conjectures, that before the words shoes travellers carried provisions from stage to and staves, stood , “except only;" it stage; nor two coats, xiiw, vests or tunics; would then be read, that the disciples were nor shoes, utonuara, which some distin. to take nothing with them but shoes and guish from sandals. They were, however, staves ; but the sense does not require originally the same, although in a later this conjectural amendment; and the noage, the shoe was a covering for the tion of a Hebrew original is exceedingly whole foot, as distinguished from oavda- doubtful. See the Introduction. Alov, which defended only the sole. The Verse 11. Worthy.-Not pious, as some meaning certainly was, not that they suppose ; for of whom were the apostles should

go barefoot, as some have under- to obtain their information, but from stood it, any more than that they should those they might casually meet, persons go without coats; but that they should who would generally direct them to the not take two pairs of sandals, as they were highest professors of the piety most ponot to take two coats, nor yet staves. pular in that day ; the ostentatious PhaSt. Mark says, “save a staff only,"which risees, who were the most likely persons

12 And when ye come into an house, salute it.

13 And if the house be worthy, let your peace come upon it: but if it be not worthy, let your peace return to you.

14 8 And whosoever shall not receive you, nor hear your words, when ye depart out of that house or city, - shake off the dust of your feet. .

15 Verily I say unto you, It shall be more tolerable for the land of Sodom and Gomorrha in the day of judgment, than for

that city.

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to reject them? But by the “worthy," nounced in Christ's name; and he engages are probably meant liberal and bountiful to ratify their act. This is a proof that persons, well known for practising hospi- more than the ordinary salutations are tality to strangers, which was generally a here intended ; for our Lord was not good indication of moral worth, though teaching his apostles the common forms not an infallible one; and our Lord pre- of civility, which they well enough unpares them for disappointment in some derstood. Let your peace RETURN to you, instances, even from persons who had this is a Hebraism. Thus it is said of God's good report.

word, that it“would return to him void,” There abide.—They were not to go from on the supposition that it failed to prohouse to house, through fickleness of duce its effect; and prayer not answered temper, or show that they could not bear is said to return “into the bosom.” The with the infirmities of those by whom sense, therefore, is, that, in the case stated, they were entertained, should they be ex- the peace prayed for would not be imercised with this trial of meekness; or parted, the blessing offered would not be that they were discontented with the ac- given. commodations afforded them. If, upon Verse 14. Shake off the dust of your the whole, their entertainers were willing feet.—The Jews thought the dust of to receive them, and out of respect to their heathen lands polluted, and were care. message, they were to show themselves ful to free themselves from it. Of this, indifferent to all inferior considerations, Wetstein has given many examples from and to practise humility, patience, and their writers, as, “The dust of Syria self-denial.

defiles, like the dust of other heaVerse 12. Salute it.—That is, the house- then countries.” By this significant act, hold, the family. What the salutation therefore, not performed in passion and was we learn from St. Luke: “ Peace be resentment, but solemnly, as commanded to this house;" which indeed is added here by Christ, the apostles were to declare in the Vulgate, Pax huic domui. Peace that house or city which rejected them, signifies every kind of felicity. “Great as worthy only to be ranked with the is peace,” say the Rabbins ;“for all other polluted cities of the heathen, even with blessings are comprehended in it.” Sodom and Gomorrha.

Verse 13. But if it be not worthy, let Verse 15. In the day of judgment, than your peace return to you. If you are re- for that city.—That is, than for the inhajected out of hatred to your Master and bitants of that city. Collective bodies of his message, your office and your work, men composing cities and nations have let your peace return ; that is, it shall re- their punishment in this life ; but in the turn, the imperative being used for the final judgment they will be dealt with as prophetic future: they were to withdraw individuals : “every one shall give aca benediction which could only be pro- count of himnself to God." Some modern

16 q'Behold, I send you forth as sheep in the midst of wolves : be ye therefore wise as serpents, and harmless as doves.

17 But beware of men: for they will deliver you up to the councils, and they will scourge you in their synagogues ;

• Or, simple.

i Luke x. 3.


critics, relying on that frail ground, the finest moral harmony. Whenever duty, absence of the article before nuepa, render honestly interpreted, without the bias of it “A day of judgment ;forgetting that, self-love, allows us to escape danger by in the very same day here mentioned, the the exercise of prudence, not only respect inhabitants of Sodom and Gomorrha are to ourselves, but also that we may prealso to be judged. The day mentioned vent others from grievously sinning, by can therefore be no other than the day indulging their malignity against Christ, of final judgment. Let two things here requires that we ought to embrace the be strongly inarked: 1. That the se- opportunity of doing so. When, however, verest TEMPORAL judgments upon sinful safety cannot be secured without injury to men, do not satisfy the claims of the of- our Master's truth and cause, no consifended justice of a holy God. The deration will induce the faithful disciple wretched inhabitants of the cities of the to desert his post, or to shrink from death plain are still reserved to public trial itself. Passion is excluded from our reand future vengeance.

2. That terrible ligion, that calm PRINCIPLE may exhibit as their case will be, it shall be more its more noble triumphs. tolerable, more supportable, than that of Harmless as doves.-This admits of no those who reject the gospel of Christ, an limitation; but is to be the character of act which involves a contempt of the disciples at all times and under all cirhighest manifestation of the divine cumstances, whether they fight or fly. mercy.

Harmless, akepalos, which some derive Verse 16. Wise as serpents.-Not wise from a, privative, and kepaw, or Kepayuuu, or skilful to inflict injury, which indeed to mingle, and hence render it

pure, withserpents are, by hiding themselves, and out malice : so Hesychius. But the antistriking their victim unawares This in- thesis appears

thus to be lost. As our terpretation is excluded by the next simile, Lord obviously meant to enjoin prudence, harmless as doves; but, as the instinct rightly understood, upon his disciples by of the serpent leads him also adroitly to the proverbial example of the serpent, shun danger by quickly retiring into his he must have intended to guard them hiding-place, so our Lord enjoins upon his against that cunning of the serpent which disciples a prudent foresight of impending is employed to injure and destroy; the evils, and a timely escape from them; in opposite to which is not so properly freedom opposition to that fanatical courting and from malice, which is not an obvious quabraving of persecution, in which some lity of the dove, as harmlessness, which ardent minds might be apt to indulge. has rendered the dove everywhere the This precept, however, shows that holy emblem of peace. The derivation may scripture is to be interpreted by a colla- therefore be better drawn from a, privation of its parts, or we might fall into the tive, and kepaigw, to hurt, and is therefore greatest errors. In other passages our accurately expressed in our translation. Lord enjoins the exposing ourselves to The expression was probably proverbial. all risks and sufferings for the sake of Verse 17. But beware of men, 80.the truth; and even to rejoice in perse- Whether the article before avópurov has cutions for his name's sake. Between the emphasis assigned to it by Middleton, thesc there is no contradiction, but the and others who regard it either as mak

18 And ye shall be brought before governors and kings for my sake, for a testimony against them and the Gentiles.

19 But when they deliver you up, take no thought how or what ye shall speak : for it shall be given you in that same hour what ye shall speak.

j Mark xiii. 11; Luke xii. 11.


ing a renewed mention of the class of men ing of several parts of this discourse ; for previously designated as “wolves,” or if it be restrained only to the first limited as signifying Jews in opposition to hea. mission of the apostles, it becomes in thens, a still less probable supposition, many parts obscure. The scourging of is quite conjectural; and, indeed, either delinquents was performed by the chuzan, view only serves to divert the reader from or servant of the synagogue. The pracwhat appears to be the true antithesis, tice was for the superior judge to read which lies not between one class of men passages out of the law during the inflicand another, but is an implied one be. tion of the punishment; the second judge tween men and seRPENTS. The last idea numbered the stripes ; and the third gave in our Lord's mind was the mischievous the order to strike before each blow. St. nature of the serpent tribe, all imitation Paul was thus scourged in the synagogue of which he forbids to his disciples; and five times. The instrument of scourging this naturally leads him to caution them a leathern thong, doubled and against men, as more venomous, cunning, twisted. and deadly than serpents themselves : but Verse 18. A testimony against them.beware of men.

The first preachers of the gospel gave a Councils,synagogues. The councils strong testimony to the truth of their rehere mentioned are the courts attached to ligion by the readiness which they showed each synagogue, which had the power of to suffer in attestation of the facts on scourging. The disciples are forewarned which it was built ; and the truth of which that they would be delivered up to councils they had the means of knowing with certo be proceeded against as delinquents, and tainty; whilst the divine origin of its the result would be the infliction of “forty doctrines derived a powerful evidence from stripes, save one,” as many of the disci- the calm heroism, the meek and forgiving ples afterward experienced; for our Lord spirit, with which they inspired the sufmust be understood, not as speaking of ferers. This was also a testimony AGAINST what should happen to the twelve apos- their persecutors, because it rendered the tles during the temporary mission on cruelties they exercised upon holy, benewhich he was now sending them, nor as volent, and peaceful men inexcusable, and confining his remarks and exhortations to a crime against God, though done often them alone, but through them to all his under the sanction of public laws. persecuted disciples afterwards, and to Verse 19. It shall be given you in that them with respect to their whole ministry same hour what ye shall speak.—As they to the end of their life. This is clear from would often be questioned, not only as to the next verse: And ye shall be brought matters of fact touching their conduct, before governors and kings for my sake, for but as to their motives, designs, and a testimony against them and the Gentiles; opinions, their appearance before magis80 that his words manifestly extend to trates would necessarily often demand those times also when they should be em- both the statement and defence of the ployed in their mission among the Gen- truths of Christianity, and, before Jewish tile nations, to whom they were as yet rulers, appeals also to the prophecies of commanded not to go. This considera- the Old Testament, in which they would tion is necessary for the right understand- have to encounter, not only violent pre

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