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what shall come to pass." Those words were spoken to the king, the first king of the Babylonian empire. This dream is intended to make known what shall happen hereafter; this is the general scope and intention of the vision -futurity. And for the particulars:
1. “ Thou.” The Chaldean empire, of which thou art the head and representative, is meant by the head of gold.
2. “ Another." The next that came after the Chaldean was the Persian and Median.
3. “ And a third of brass." The third, or next after, was the Grecian.
4. “ And the fourth kingdom shall be strong as iron, forasmuch as iron breaketh in pieces and subdueth all things; and as iron that breaketh all these, shall it break in pieces and bruise. The next in rotation was the Roman empire, and which was indeed answering the description of it, for it was stronger and more powerful than any of the former empires, about as much as iron is stronger than any
of the other metals. 5. “ And whereas thou sawest the feet and toes, part of potter's clay and part of iron, the kingdom shall be divided, and there shall be in it of the strength of iron: forasmuch as thou sawest the iron mixed with miry clay.”
And now comes our question--What kingdom is here meant that is to be divided, and which shall, in its divided state, have in it of the strength of iron; is this a fifth kingdom, or is this spoken of the fourth, the Roman empire ? You say
the fourth “must make its appearance before the destruction of the fourth monarchy.” Again you say, “ the kingdom of ...... made its appearance while the Roman empire was partly strong and partly broken.” You have then presumed, without showing that the Roman empire, when the kingdom of ...... made its appearance, was partly strong and partly broken. When was this ? Jesus was born in the reign of Augustus Cæsar, when Rome was mistress of the world, when she was in the plenitude of
power; was this when the “ Roman empire was partly strong and partly broken?" I can see nothing weak or broken about the Roman empire at this epoch; and you will be much puzzled to show it to have been so. Daniel says, “ The kingdom shall be divided ;” not that it should be divided only into parts, but that the kingdom shall be composed of weak and strong substances; the constitution of the empire shall be base in some part and strong in
“ There shall be in it of the strength of iron;" not altogether clay. This would look as if either the fourth empire should be so altered in its constitution, that something base, grovelling, or broken, should partake of the empire with the iron; or, that there shall arise a fifth empire, of a baser quality, yet retain some of the strength of the former. 6 Forasmuch as thou sawest the iron mixed with miry clay.” As some iron was yet mixed with the clay, there shall be in this empire of clay, some strength.
“ And as the toes of the feet were part of iron and part of clay, so the kingdom shall be partly strong and partly broken.” This means, as the toes of the feet, some of them were iron and others clay, some parts of the empire will be stronger constituted than other parts; so that there must be in this empire, several governments, some to be strong, and others to be broken or weak.
66 And whereas thou sawest iron mixed with miry clay, they shall mingle themselves with the seed of men, but shall not cleave one to another; even as iron is not mixed with clay.” Some of the governments in the empire will be mixed governments, mingling with the seed of men; representatives of the commonalty. But this will only engender disagreement of the parts ; for, do as you will, iron, or monarchy, will not mix with clay, the commonalty.
70IX YU “With the seed of man.” The word translated seed, is often families or assemblies of men. “Gershon of the family of the Libnites.” Tar. Oenk. Num. iii. 21. “My family is small in Manasseh ;" the words in Tar. Jona. is 'n'yni my family. “Shall come near by the families.” Tar. Jona. Josh. vii. 14. The word is quyosh, and so the two families. Tar Jona. Jer. xxxiii. 24. - The families of
** And in the days of these kings," when the 5th or 4th empire (take your choice) shall be so constituted, some kings strong, some weak or broken, some monarchies, some mingled with representatives, (the seed of men,) and all so constituted as clay, inclined always to crumble apart both from the iron, and even from itself, “ will the God of heaven set up a kingdom which shall never be destroyed; and the kingdom shall not be left to other people, but it shall break in pieces and consume all these kingdoms, and it shall stand for ever.”
"All these kingdoms.” Certainly it cannot mean the first, second, third, and fourth kingdoms only, but all the kingdoms of the kings of the empire, constituted as above represented by the feet and toes, whoever they are, 4th or 5th. These are the kingdoms that are to be broken to pieces by the Messiah or his kingdom; and in consequence, the others will fall of themselves; for the stone is to strike the image (only) upon the feet, that were of iron and clay.
“Forasmuch as thou sawest that the stone was cut out of the mountain without hands; and that it brake in pieces the iron, the brass, the clay, the silver, and the gold.” When Daniel was recounting the dream, he counted thus, ver. 35, "Then was the iron, the (clay,) the brass, the silver, and the
the Canaanites.” And so here: “They shall mix themselves, with the families of mankind.” The governments thall be mixed governments, mixing democracy with the government. I do not wish to be understood that the clay represents, or was at all by itself intended to represent the democracy and the iron the monarchy, only the mixing of the iron with the clay represented that the governments should be mixed ; and the prophet informs the king 770 IX Y712 with the seed or family of mankind. For the clay is the principal ingredient, and indeed the whole empire is represented by the clay; and the iron and mixing were intended to explain particulars and circumstances concerning the empire represented by the feet and toes of the image. The circumstance of there being iron was explained to mean that there should be strength. The circumstance of being mixed, that the powers of government should be mixed ; and there being no substance to represent what should be mixed besides the iron and clay, puts the prophet under the necessity of explaining “with the family of mankind;" and the substances being contrary in their natures, represented that the several parts would be discordant, always inclined to fly one from the other, as well as that the different parts of the empire, the several governments of which the empire would consist in like manner would not agree.
gold,” but here in the 45th verse, he counts the brass before the clay, thus, “ the iron, the brass, the clay; "thereby showing that the clay is considered as a particular empire from the iron; for he divides it from the iron in the recapitulation, by putting the brass between them; so that there can be no doubt that he meant a fifth empire by the clay and iron, and which in the recapitulation he only accounts clay, that being its principal ingredient, to represent its crumbly, broken, weak nature. But say for a moment, “in the days of those kings” means in the days of the Roman empire the fourth; then let us examine what was the stone, the kingdom of God, to have done; and then see whether you, gentlemen, have done it, for before you can with propriety call yourselves the kingdom of the stone, you must do what the stone should have done.
“And in the days of those kings, shall the God of heaven set up a kingdom which shall never be destroyed; and the kingdom shall not be left to other people, but it shall break in pieces and consume all those kingdoms, and shall stand for ever.” Now this you would tell us you have done, in the very face of fact. You tell us you have broke the Roman, Grecian, Persian, and Chaldean kingdoms, when in truth, excepting a very small corner of the western part of the Roman empire, you do not hold a foot of land in either, under your authority; and the pope of Rome has yet possession of the seat of the ancient empire ; for all the eastern part of the Roman empire is in possession of Mahomedans, and really coudnereq from you ..... ians, so that, that part has been left to other people; but they also hold possession of, and rule over Greece, Persia, and Chaldea, and not you. View the map of the Roman empire, gentlemen, and count, the British isles, Holland, and part of Germany, with part of Switzerland, Protestant. What more have you, while the rest of the continent of Europe, Austria and Bohemia, France, Italy and Spain, as well as all Asia and Africa, are not at all of your confederacy? As to the United States, the country of my adoption, and of the nativity of my children, (thank God,) it is no part of the image, nor of the beast. No, gentlemen, protestant .. .. .. ianity is but a small portion of the cracked clay empire, and not the stone cut out of the mountain without hands. 6 Without hands!” What was the intention of these two words? is it not that God, the God of Heaven, would raise up a kingdom without the assistance of the hands or power of men? And how, and in what manner, has this kingdom you hold been raised up? is it not cemented with blood ? Read the history of the Reformation, and blush. I will not bring railing accusations ; therefore I will not point out the particular executions wherewith it was begun, the prosecutions wherewith it is upheld, nor the persecutions which prop and hold together its several ramifications. Is this without hands?
Why then do I see every man with his hands on his loins, as a woman in travail, and all faces turned to paleness?" And let me not be told, wars must not be put to the account of the kingdom, when yourselves choose to account the order of things sprung as a consequence of those very wars, the kingdom of God.
And thus, gentlemen, I think I have shown that Daniel did speak of a fifth empire; or in other words, of such a state of things which was to be before the stone's kingdom, called the kingdom of God, as had not been and was not, when (what you term) the kingdom of ...... made its appearance, place that appearance when you please ; whether with the birth, passion, Constantine, Bellisarius, or even Calvin and Luther. I do not like to make the application, for two reasons; first it is so plain that he who runs may read. Secondly, my object is a fair consideration of the controversy between us, and I wish to avoid any thing that might sour the disposition for candid inquiry in love. I am not a sectarian, and therefore do not