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CHAP. VII. Of God's Covenant with Man.
HE distance between God and the creature is so great,

that although reasonable creatures do owe obedience unto him as their Creator, yet they could never have any fruition of him as their blessedness and reward, but by some voluntary condescension on God's part, which he hath been pleased to express by way of covenant". “and were by nature the children of way of understanding? Ver. 15. Bewrath, even as others.

hold, the nations are as a drop of q Gal. iii. 10. For as many as are of bucket, and are counted as the smali the works of the law are under the dust of the balance: behold, te taketha curse ; for it is written, Cursed is evés up the isles as a very little thing. Vet. ry one that continuerh not in all things 16. And Lebanon is not sufficient to which are written in the book of the burn, nor the beasts thereof sufficient law to do them.

for a burnt-offering. Ver. 17. All na Rom. vi. 23. For the wages of sin tions before him are as nothing; and is death: but the gift of God is eternal they are counted to him less than nou life, through Jesus Christ our Lord. thing, and vanity. Job ix. 32. For he

8 Eph. iv. 18. Having the under. is not a man as I am, that I should *standing darkened, being alienated answer him, and we shouid come to. from the life of God through the ig: gether in judgment. Ver. 33. Neither norance that is in them, because of the is there any days.man betwixt us, that blindness of their heart.

might lay his hand upon us both. t Rom. viii. 20. For the creature 1 Sam. ii. 25. If one man sin against was made subject to vanity, not will. another, the judge shall judge him ingly, but by reason of him who hath but if a man sin against the Lord, who subjected the same in hope. Lam. iii. shall entreat for him ? Psal. cxiji. 5. 39. Wherefore doth a living man Who is like unto the Lord our God, complain, a man for the punishment who dwelleth on high; Ver. 6. Who of his sins?

humbleth himself to behold the things * Matt. xxy. 41. Then shall he say that are in heaven, and in the earth! also unto them on the left hand, De- Psal. c. 2. Serve the Lord with glad part from me, ye cursed, into everlast- ness: come before his presence with ing fire, prepared for the devil and his singing. Ver. 3. Know ye that the angels. 2 Thess. i: 9 Who shall be Lord he is God: it is he that haih punished with everlasting destruction made us, and not we ourselves : we from the presence of the Lord, and are his people, and the sheep of his from the glory of his power.

pasture Job xxi. 2. Can a man be 1. a Isa. xl. 13. Who hath directed profitable unto God, as he that is wise the Spirit of the Lord, or, being his may be profitable un o himself? Ver. counsellor, hath taught him ? V. 14. 3 is it any pleasure to the Almighty With whom took he counsel, and who that thou art righteous ? or is it gain instructed him, and taught him in the to him that thou makest thy ways per path of judgment, and taught him fect ? Job xxxv. 7. If thou be righknowledge, and shewed to hir ise teous, what givest thou him? or what

II. The first covenant made with man was a covenant of works, wherein life was promised to Adam, and in him to his posterity's, upon condition of perfect and personal obedienced

III. Man by his fall having made himself incapable of life by that covenant, the Lord was pleased to make a seconde, commonly called the Covenant of Grace : wherein he freely offereth unto sinners life and salvation by Jesus Christ, requiring of them faith in him, thút they may be saved f; and promising to give unto all those that are örreceiveth he of thine hand! Ver, 8. the law could not do, in that it was Thy wickedness máy hurt a man as weak through the Aesh, God sending thou art, and thy righteousness may his own Son in the likeness of sinful profit the son of man. Luke xvii. 10. flesh, and for sin condemned sin in So likewise ye, when ye shall have the fesh. Rom. iii. 20. Therefore by done all those things which are com- the deeds of the law there shall no manded you, say, We are unprofita. ftesh be justified in his sight: for by ble servants: we have done that which the law is the knowledge of sin. Ver. was our duty to do. Acts xvii. 24. 21. But now the righteousness of God God, that made the world, and all without the law is manifested, being things therein, seeing that he is Lord witnessed by the law and the proof heaven and earth, dwelteth not in phets. Gen. iii. 15. And I will put entemples made with hands : Ver. 25. mity between thee and the woman, Neither is worshipped with men's and between thy seed and her seed': hands, as though he needed any thing, it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt seeing he giveth to all life, and breath, bruise his heel. Isa. xlii. 6 I the Lord and all things.

have called thee in righteousness, and II. 6 Gal. iii. 13. And the law is not will hold thine hand, and will keep of faith; but, The man that doeth thee, and give thee for a covenant of ther shall live in them.

the people, for a light of the Gentiles. c Rom. x 5. For Moses describeth f Mark xvi. 15. And he said unto the righteousness which is of the law, them, Go je into all the world, and that the man which doeth those things preach the gospel to every creature. shall live by them. Rom. v. 12. to 20. Ver. 16. He that believeth, and is baf[See Chup. vi. Sect. 3 letter f] tized, shall be saved; but he that be.

d Gen ii. 17. But of the tree of the lieveth not, shall be damned. John iii. knowledge of good and evil thou shalt 16. For God so loved the world, that not eat of it : for in the day that thou he gave his only begotten Son, that eatest thereof, thou shalt surely die. whosoever believeth in him should not Gal. iii. 10. For as many as are of the perish, but have everlasting life. Rom. works of the law, are under the curse : x. 6. But the righteousness which is for it is written, Cursed is every one of faith speakerh on this wise, Say that continueth not in all things which not in thine heart, Who shall ascend are written in the book of the law to into heaven? (that is, to bring Christ do them.

down from above : Ver. 9. That if Ill. e Gat. vii. 21. Is the law then thou shalt confess with thy mouth the against the promises of God? God Lord Jesus, and shalt believe in thine forbid : for if there had been a law heart that God hath raised him from given which could have given life, the dead, thou shalt be saved. Gal. verily righteousness shouid have been iii. 11. But that no man is justified Ny the law. Rom. vii. 3. For what by the law in the sight of God, is

dained unto life his Holy Spirit, to make them willing and able to believe 8.

IV. This covenant of grace is frequently set forth in the scripture by the name of a Testament, in reference to the death of Jesus Christ the testator, and to the everlasting inheritance, with all things belonging to it, therein bequeathed

V. This covenant was differently administered in the time of the law, and in the time of the gospeli: under the law it was administered by promises, prophecies, sacrifices, circumcision, the paschal lamb, and other types and ordi. nances delivered to the people of the Jews, all furesignifying Christ to come k, which were for that time sufficient is evident: for, The just shall live by you. 1 Cor. xi. 25. After the same faith.

manner also he took the cup, when & Ezek. xxxvi. 26. A new heart al. he had supped, saying, This cup is so will I give you, and a new spirit the new testament in my blood : this will I put within you; and I will take do ye, as oft as ye drink it, in remem. away the stony heart out of your fiesh, brance of me. and I will give you an heart of flesh. V. i 2 Cor. iii. 6. Who also hat! Ver., 27. And I will put my Spirit made us able ministers of the new within you, and cause you to walk in testament; not of the letter, but of my statutes, and ye shall keep my judg- the spirit : for the letter" killeth, bui ments, and do them. John vi. 41. No the spirit giveth life. Ver. 7. Bui man can come to me, except the Fa. if the ministration of death, writter ther which hath sent me draw him: and engraven in stones, was glorious and I will raise him up at the last day. so that the children of Israel could no Ver. 45. It is written in the prophets, stedfastly behold, the face of Mose: and they shall be all taught of God. for the glory of his countenance Every man therefore that hath heard, which glory was to be done away and hath learned of the Father, com- Ver. 8. How shall not the ministra eth unto me.

tion of the Spirit be rather glorious IV. b Heb. ix, 15. And for this Ver. 9. For if the minstration of con cause he is the Mediator of the New demnation be glory, much more dort Testament, that by means of death, the ministration of righteousness ex for the redemption of the transgres- ceed in glory, sions that were under the first testa, k (Heb. Chapters viji, ix, x.) Rom ment, they which are called might re. iv. 11. And he received the sign o ceive the promise of eternal inheri- circumcision, a seal of the righteous tance. Ver. 16. For where a testa- ness of the faith which he had ye ment is, there must also of necessity being uncircumcised ; that he migh be the death of the testator. Ver. 17. be the father of all then that believe For a testament is of force after men though they be not circumcised; tha are dead; otherwise it is of no strength righteousness might be imputed ur at all while the testator liveth. Heb. to them also. Col. i. 11. In whor vii. 22. by so much was Jesus made also ye are circumcised with the cii a surety of a better testament. Luke cumcision made without hands, i xxii. 20. Likewise also the cup after putting off the body of the sir supper, saying, This cup is the new of the flesh by the circumcisions tament in my blood, which is shed for Christ : Ver. 12. Buried with him i

and efficacious, through the operation of the Spirit, to instruct and build up the elect in faith in the promised Messiah', by whom they had full remission of sins, and eternal salvation; and is called the Old Testament m.

VI. Under the gospel, when Christ the substance " was exhibited, the ordinances in which this covenant is dispensed are the preaching of the word, and the administration of the sacraments of Baptism and the Lord's Supper; which, though fewer in number, and administered with more simplicity, and less outward glory, yet in them it is held forth in more fulness, evidence, and spiritual efficacy P,

the sea ;

baptism, wherein also ye are risen come on the Gentiles through Jesus with him through the faith of the Christ; that we might receive the operation of God, who hath raised promise of the Spirit through faith. him from the dead. 1 Cor. y. 7. VI. n Col. ii. 17. Which are a sha. Purge out therefore the old leaven, dow of things to come; but the bothat ye may be a new lump, as ye dy is of Christ. are unleavened. For even Christ our o Matt. xxviii. 19. Go ye therePassover is sacrificed for us.

fore and teach all nations, baptizing 11 Cor. x. 1. Moreover, brethren, them in the name of the Father, and I would not that ye should be igno- of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost : rant, how that all our fathers were un- Ver. 20. Teaching them to observe all der the cloud, and all passed through things whatsoever I have commanded

Ver. 2. And were all bap- you : and lo, I am with you alway, tized unto Moses in the cloud, and in even unto the end of the world, Amen. the sea ; Ver. 3. And did all eat the 1 Cor. xi. 23. For I have received of same spiritual meat; Ver. 4. And the Lord that which also I delivered did all drink the same spiritual drink : unto you, That the Lord Jesus, the (for they drank of that spiritual Rock same night in which he was betraythat followed them: and that Rock ed, took bread : Ver. 24. And, when was Christ.) Heb. xi. 13. These all he had given thanks, he brake it, and died in faith, not having received the said, Take, eat; this is my body, promises, but having seen them afar which is broken for you : this do in off, and were persuaded of them, and remembrance of me. Ver. 25. After embraced them, and confessed that the same manner also he took the cup, they were strangers and pilgrims on when he had supped, saying, This the earth. John vijj. 56. Your father cup is the new testament in my blood : Abraham rejoiced to see my day : and this do ye, as oft as ye drink it, in rebe saw it, and was glad.

membrance of me. mn Gal. iii. 7. Know ye therefore p Heb. xii. 22. But ye are come unthat they which are of faith, the same to mount Sion, and unto the city of are the children of Abraham. Ver. 8. the living God, the heavenly JerusaAnd the scripture foreseeing that God lem, and to an innumerable company would justify the heathen through of angels, Ver. 23. To the general asfaith, preached before the gospel un- sembly and church of the first-born, to Abraham, saying, In thee shall all which are written in heaven, and to nations be blessed. Ver. 9. So then God the Judge of all, and to the spithey which be of faith are blessed rits of just men made perfect, V. 24. with faithful Abraham. Ver. 14. And to Jesus the Mediator of the new That the blessing of Abraham might covenant, and to the blood of sprinkto all nations, both Jews and Gentiles; and is called the New Testament". There are not therefore two covenants of grace differing in substance, but one and the same under various dispensations'. ling, that speaketh better things than Luke xxii. 20. Likewise also the that of Abel. Ver. 25. See that ye re- cup after supper, saying, This cup is fuse not him that speaketh: for if the new testament in my blood, which they escaped net, who refused him that is shed for you. spake on earth, much more shall not s Gal. iii. 14. That the blessing of we escape, if we turn away from him Abraham might come on the Gentiles that speaketh from heaven : Ver. 26. through Jesus Christ; that we might Whose voice then shook the earth: receive the promise of the Spirit but now he hath promised, saying, through faith. Ver. 16. Now to AbraYet once more I shake not the earth ham and his seed were the promises only, but also heaven. Ver. 27. And made. He saith not, and to seeds, as this word, Yet once more, signifieth of many; but as of one, And to thy the removing of those things that are seed, which is Christ. Acts xv. 11. shaken, as of things that are made, But we believe that through the grace that those things which cannot be sha. of the Lord Jesus Christ we shall be ken may remain. Jer. xxxi. 33. But sayed even as they. Rom. iii. 21. But this shall be the covenant that I will now the righteousness of God without make with the house of Israel; After the law is manifested, being witness. those days, saith the Lord, I will puted by the law and the prophets : V my law in their inward parts, and 22. Even the righteousness of God write it in their hearts ; and will be which is by faith of Jesus Christ their God, and they shall be my peo. -unto all and upon all them that be ple. Ver. 34. And they shall teach no lieve; for there is no difference more every man his neighbour, and Ver. 23. For all have sinned, an every man his brother, saying, Know come short of the glory of God. Ver the Lord: for they shall all know me, 30. Seeing it is one God, which shal from the least of them unto the great- justify the circumcision by faith, anı est of them, saith the Lord : for 1 will uncircumcision through faith. Psaln forgive their iniquity, and I will re. xxxii. 1. Blessed is he whose trans member their sin no more.

gression is forgiven, whose sin i 9 Mat. xxviii. 19 [See letter o im. covered. With Rom. iv. 3. For wha mediarely foregoing.] Eph. ii. 15. Ha. saith the scriptore ? Abraham belie ving abolished in his flesh the enmity, ved God, and it was counted unt even the law of commandments, con. him for righteousness. Ver. 6. Eve tained in ordinances, for to make in as David also describeth the blessed himself of twain one new man, so ness of the man unto whom Go making peace. Ver. 16. And that he imputeth righteousness withou might reconcile both unto God in one works. Ker 16. Therefore it is a body by the cross, having slain the en- faith, that it might be by grace ; + mity thereby : Ver. 17. And came the end the promise might be sure t and preached peace to you which were all the seed; not to that only whici afar off, and to them that were nigh. is of the law, but to that also whic V. 18. For: hrough him we both have is of the faith of Abraham, who i an access by one Spirit unto the Fa- the father of us all ; Ver. 17. (A ther. Ver. 19. Now therefore ye are it is written, I have made thee a fa no more strangers and foreigners, but ther of many nations,) before bir fellow citizens with the saints, and of whom he believed, even God, wh the household of God.

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