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CHAP. XXIX. Of the Lord's Supper.
instituted the sacrament of his body and blood, called the Lord's Supper, to be observed in his church unto the end of the world, for the perpetual remembrance of the sacrifice of himself in his death, the sealing all benefits thereof unto true believers, their spiritual nourishment and growth in him, their further engagement in and to all duties which they owe unto him, and to be a bond and pledge of their communion with him, and with each other, as members of his mystical body r.
II. In this sacrament Christ is not offered up to his Father, nor any real sacrifice made at all for remission of sins of the quick or dead b; but only a commemoration of that one offering up of himself, by himself, upon the cross, once for all, and a spiritual oblation of all possible praise unto God for the same; so that the Popish sacrifice of the mass, as they
I. a I Cor. xi. 23. For I have re be Jews or Gentiles, whether we be ceived of the Lord that which also I bond or free; and have been all made delivered unto you, That the Lord Je- to drink into one Spirit. sus, the same night in which he was II. b Heb. ix. 22. And almost all betrayed, took bread : Ver. 24. And things are by the law purged with when he had given thanks, he brake blood ; and without shedding of blood it, and said, Take, eat; this is my bo. is no remission. Ver. 25. Nor yet that dy, which is broken for you: this do he should offer himself often, as the in remembrance of me. Ver. 25. Af- high priest entereth into the holy place ter the same manner also he took the every year with blood of others; Ver. cup, when he had supped, saying, 26. (For then must he often have This cup is the new testament in my suffered since the foundation of the blood : this do ye, as oft a's ye
drink world ;) but now once in the end of it, in remembrance of me. Ver. 26. the world hath he appeared to put For as often as ye eat this bread, and away sin by the sacrifice of himself. drink this cup, ye do shew the Lord's Ver. 28. So Christ was once offered death till he come. 1 Cor. x. 16. The to bear the sins of many; and unto cup of blessing which we bless, is it those that look for him shall he
appear not the communion of the blood of the second time, without sin, unto salChrist? the bread which we break, is vation. it not the communion of the body of c 1 Cor. xi. 24, 25, 26. [See them Christ? Ver. 17. For we, being many, in letter a.] Matt. xxvi. 26. And as are one bread and one body : for we chey were eating, Jesus took bread, are all partakers of that one hread. and blessed it, and brake it, and gave Ver. 21. Ye cannot drink the cup of it to the disciples, and said, Take, the Lord, and the cup of devils; ye eat; this is my body. Ver. 27. And cannot be partakers of the Lord's ta- he took the cup, and gave thanks, and ble, and of the table of devils. 1 Cor. gave it to them, saying, Drink ye all xii. 13. For by one Spirit are we all of it. baptized into one body, whether we
call it, is most abominably injurious to Christ's one only sacrifice, the alone propitiation for all the sins of the elect d.
III. The Lord Jesus hath, in this ordinance, appointed his ministers to declare his word of institution to the people, to pray, and bless the elements of bread and wine, and thereby to set them apart from a common to an holy use ; and to take and break the bread, to take the cup, and (they communicating also themselves to give both to the communicantse; but to none who are not then present in the congregation
Iy. Private masses, or receiving this sacrament by a priest, or any other, alone 6; as likewise the denial of the cup to the people; worshipping the elements, the lifting them up, or carrying them about for adoration, and the reserving them for any pretended religious use ; are all con
d Heb. vii. 23. And they truly were for many. And Luke xxii. 19. And many priests, because they were not he took bread, and gave thanks, and suffered to continue by reason of death: brake it, and gave unto them, saying, Ver. 24. But this man, because he con This is my body, which is given for tinueth ever, hath an unchangeable you : this do in remembrance of me. priesthood. Ver. 27. Who needeth not Ver. 20. Likewise also the cup after daily, as those high priests, to offer up supper, saying, This cup is the new sacrifice, first for his own sins, and testament in my blood, which is shed then for the people's: for this he did for you. With 1 Cor. xi. 23—26. once, when he offered up himself. [See all in letter a.) Heb. x. 11. And every priest standeth f Acts xx. 7. And upon the first day daily ministering and offering often. of the week, when the disciples came times the same sacrifices, which can together to break bread, Paul preachnever take away sins : Ver. 12. But ed unto them, ready to depart on the this man, after he had offered one sa morrow, and continued his speech uncrifice for sins, for ever sat down on til midnight. 1 Cor. xi. 20. When ye the right hand of God. Ver. 14. For come together therefore into one place, by one offering he hath perfected for this is not to eat the Lord's supper. ever them that are sanctified. Ver. 18.
IV.g 1 Cor. x. 6. Now these things Now,where remission of these is, there were our examples, to the intent we is no more offering for sin.
should not lust after evil things, as Ill. e Matt. xxvi. 26, 27. (See in they also lusted. letter c.] Ver. 28. For this is my blood • Mark xiv. 23. (See in letter c.? of the new testament, which is shed 1 Cor. xi. 25, 26. (See in letter a.] Ver. for many for the remission of sins. 27: Wherefore, whosoever shall eat And Mark xiv. 22. And as they did this bread, and drink this cup of the eat, Jesus took bread, and blessed, and Lord, unworthily, shall be guilty of brake it, and gave to them, and said, the body and blood of the Lord. Ver. Take, eat; this is my body. Ver. 23. 28. But let a man examine himself, And he took the cup; and when he and so let him eat of that bread, and had given thanks, he gave it to them: drink of that cup. Ver. 29. For ke that and i hey all drank of it. Ver. 24. And eateth and drinketh unworthily, eathe said unto them, This is my blood eth and drinketh damnation to him. of the new testament, which is shed self, not discerning the Lord's body,
trary to the nature of this sacrament, and to the institution of Christi.
V. The outward elements in this sacrament, duiy set apart to the uses ordained by Christ, have such relation to him crucified, as that truly, yet sacramentally only, they are sometimes called by the name of the things they represent, to wit, the body and blood of Christk; aibeit, in substance and nature, they still remain truly and only bread and wine, as they were before
VI. That doctrine which maintains a change of the substance of bread and wine into the substarce of Christ's body and blood (commonly called Transubstantiation) by consecration of a priest, or by any other way, is repugnant, not to scripture alone, but even to common sense and reason ; overthroweth the nature of the sacrainent; and hath been and is the cause of manifold superstitions, yea, of gross idolatries m.
VII. Worthy receivers, outwardly partaking of the visible elements in this sacrament ", do then also inwardly by faith, really and indeed, yet not carnally and corporally, but spiritually, receive and feed upon Christ crucified, and all benefits of his death : the body and blood of Christ being then
i Matt. xv. 9. But in vain they do until that day when I drink it new worship me, teaching for doctrines the with you in my Father's kingdom. commandments of men.
VI. m Acts iü. 21. Whom the heaV. k Matt. xxvi. 26. And as they ven must receive, until the times of were eating, Jesus took bread, and restitution of all things, which God blessed it, and brake it, and gave it to hath spoken by the mouth of all his the disciples, and said, Take, eat; this holy prophets since the world began. is my body. Ver 27. And he took the With 1 Cor. xi. 24 And when he had cup, and gave thanks, and gave it to given thanks, he brake it, and said, them, saying, Drink ye all of it: Ver. Take, eat; this is my body, which is 28. For this is my blood of the new broken for you: this do in remem. testament, which is shed for many for brance of me. Ver. 25. After the same the remission of sins.
manner also he took the cup, when he 1 1 Cor. xi. 26. For as often as ye had supped, saying, This cup is the eat this bread, and drink this cup, ye new testament in my blood : this do do shew the Lord's death till he come. ye, as oft as ye drink it, in remem Ver 27. Wherefore, whosoever shall brance of me. Ver. 26 (See in letter l.] eat this bread, and drink this cup of Luke xxiv. 6. He is not here, but is the Lord, unworthily, shall be guilty risen: remember how he spake unto of the body and blood of the Lord. you when he was yet in Galilee. Ver. Ver. 28. But let a man examine him. 39. Behold my hands and my feet, that self, and so let him cat of that bread, it is I myself: handle me, and see ; and drink of that cup. Matt. xxvi. 29. "for a spirit hath not flesh and bones, But I say unto you, I will not drink as ye see me have. henceforth of this fruit of the vine, VII. n 1 Cor. xi. 28. [See in letter !.]
not corporally or carnally in, with, or under the bread and wine ; yet as really, but spiritually, present to the faith of believers in that ordinance, as the elements themselves are to their outward senses o.
VIII. Although ignorant and wicked men receive the outward elements in this sacrament, yet they receive not the thing signified thereby ; but by their unworthy coming thereunto are guilty of the body and blood of the Lord, to their own damnation. Wherefore all ignorant and ungodly persons, as they are unfit to enjoy communion with him, so are they unworthy of the Lord's table, and cannot, without great sin against Christ, while they remain such, partake of these holy mysteries P, or be admitted thereunto 4.
CHAP. XXX. Of Church Censures. HE Lord Jesus, as king and head of his church, hath
therein appointed a government in the hand of churchofficers, distinct from the civil magistrate
o 1 Cor. x. 16. The cup of blessing that ye may be a new lump, as ye are which we bless, is it not the coinmu. unleavened. For even Christ our passnion of the blood of Christ ? the bread over is sacrificed for us. Ver. 13. But which we break, is it not the commu them that are without God judgeth. nion of the body of Christ ?
Therefore put away from among yourVIII. p. 1 Cor. xi. 27, 28. [See in selves that wicked person. 2 Thess. letter I.] Ver. 29. For he that eateth iii. 6. Now we command you, brethren, and drinketh unworthily, eateth and in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, drinketh damnation to himself, not that ye withdraw yourselves from evediscerning the Lord's body. 2 Cor. ry brother that walketh disorderly, and vi. 14. Be ye not unequally yoked to not after the tradition which he regether with unbelievers : for what fel. ceived of us. Ver. 14. And if any man lowship hath righteousness with un. obey not our word by this epistle, note righteousness ? and what communion that man, and have no company with hath light with darkness ? Ver. 15. him, that he may be ashamed. Ver. And what concord hath Christ with 15. Yet count him not as an enemy, Belial? or what part hath he that but admonish him as a brother. Matt. believeth with an infidel? Ver. 16. vii. 6. Give not that which is holy unAnd what agreement hath the temple to the dogs, neither cast ye your pearls of God with idols ? for ye are the tem before swine, lest they trample them ple of the living God; as God hath under their feet, and turn again and said, I will dwell in them, and walk rend you. in them"; and I will be their God, and I. a Isa. ix. 6. For unto us a child they shall be my people.
is born, unto us son is given, and the q 1 Cor. v. 6. Your glorying is not government shall be upon his shoul. good. Know ye not that a little leaven der : and his name shall be called leaveneth the whole !ump? Ver. 7. Wonderful, Counsellor, The mighty Purge out therefore the old leaven, God, The everlasting Father, The
II. To these officers the keys of the kingdom of heaven are committed, by virtue whereof they have power respectively to retain and remit sins, to shut that kingdom against the impenitent, both by the word and censures; and to open it unto penitent sinners, by the ministry of the gospel, and by absolution from censures, as occasion shall require b.
III. Church censures are necessary for the reclaiming and gaining of offending brethren ; for deterring of others from the like offences; for purging out of that leaven which Prince of Peace. Ver. 7. Of the in. xxviii. 18. And Jesus came, and spake crease of his government and peace unto them, saying, All power is given there shall be no end, upon the throne unto me in heaven and in earth. Ver. of David, and upon his kingdom, to 19. Go ye therefore, and teach all naorder it, and to establish it with judg. tions, baptizing them in the name of ment and with justice, from hence. the Father, and of the Son, and of the forth, even for ever: the zeal of the Holy Ghost : Ver. 20. Teaching them Lord of hosts will perform this. 1 to observe all things whatsoever I have Tim. v. 17. Let the elders that rule commanded you: and, lo, I am with well be counted worthy of double ho- you alway, even unto the end of the nour, especially they who labour in the worid. Amen. word and doctrine. 1 Thess. v. 12. II. 6 Matt. xvi. 19. And I will give And we beseech you, brethren, to unto thee the keys of the kingdom of know them which labour among you, heaven; and whatsoever thou shalt and are over you in the Lord, and ado bind on earth, shall be bound in heamonish you. Acts xx. 17. And from ven; and whatsoever thou shalt loose Miletus he sent to Ephesus, and call on earth, shall be loosed in heaven. ed the elders of the church. Ver. 18. Mart. xviii. 17. And if he shall neglect And when they were come to him, he to hear them, tell it unto the church ; said unto them, Ye know, from the but if he neglect to hear the church, first day that I came into Asia, after let him be unto thee as an heathen what manner I have been with you man, and a publican. Ver. 18. Verily at all seasons. Heb. xiii. 7. Remem. I say unto you, Whatsoever ye shall ber them which have the rule over bind on earth, shall be bound in heayou, who have spoken unto you the ven; and whatsoever ye shall loose on word of God; whose faith follow, earth, shall be loosed in heaven. John considering the end of their conver xx. 21. Then said Jesus to them again, sation. Ver. 17. Obey them that have Peace be unto you: as my Father hath the rule over you, and submit youre sent me, even so send I you. Ver. 22. selves; for they watch for your souls, And when he had said this, he breathas they that must give account ; that ed on them, and saith unto them, Rethey may do it with joy, and not with ceive ye the Holy Ghost: Ver. 23. grief: for that is unprofitable for you. Whose soever sins ye remit, they are Ver. 24. Salute all them that have the remitted unto them; and whose soever rule over you, and all the saints. They sins ye retain, they are retained. 2 Cor. of Italy salute you. 1 Cor. xii. 28. i1.6. Sufficient to such a man is this pie And God hath set some in the church: nishment, which was inflicted of many. first, apostles ; secondarily, prophets; Ver 7. So that, contrariwise, ye ought thirdly, teachers ; after that miracles; rather to forgive him, and comfort then gifts of healings, helps, govern- him, lest perhaps such an one should ments, diversities of tongues. Matt. be swallowed up with over-much sor