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For who can yet believe, though after loss,
That all these puissant legions, whose exile
Hath emptied heaven, shall fail to re-ascend,
Self-raised, and repossess their native seat ?
For me, be witness all the host of heaven, - 635
If counsels different, or danger shunned
By me, have lost our hopes. But he who reigns
Monarch in heaven, till then as one secure
Sat on his throne, upheld by old repute,
Consent, or custom, and his regal state

. 640
Put forth at full, but still his strength concealed;
Which tempted our attempt, and wrought our fall.
Henceforth his might we know, and know our own,
So as not either to provoke, or dread
New war, provoked : our better part remains 645
To work in close design, by fraud or guile,
What force effected not; that he no less
At length from us may find, who overcomes
By force hath overcome but half his foe.
Space may produce new worlds; whereof so rife 650
There went a fame in heaven that he ere long
Intended to create, and therein plant
A generation whom his choice regard
Should favor equal to the sons of heaven.
Thither, if but to pry, shall be perhaps


Kaow repulse. Horace, 01. 10. 17, has virtus repulsce nescio, valor that knows no repulse. — 633. Emptied. The exaggeration of a braggart and a liar. In Rev.xii. 4, we read of a great red dragon' that his tail drew the third part of the stars of heaven.' Hence the belief that a third of the angels fell, as stated in Par. Lost, II. 692 ; V. 710 ; VI. 156. — 635. Of heaven. Meaning those to whom he speaks? or the good angels? or both ?-636. Different. From what? — 640. State, pomp. — 642. Tempted our attempt. Keightley claims to have been the first to recognize in Milton's plays upon words imitations of Scripture. Par. Lost, J. 606; V. 869 ; IX. 11; XII. 78. — 647-8. No less (than we have found out his power ?). He anıl us emphatic!—650. Space. Why .space' and not ‘God '? Rife (Ger. reif, ripe), prevalent, frequent. 651. Fame. As Addison remarks, this previous fame beautifully exalts the human race. — 654. Equal. Syntax ? - 655. Thither. The first definite



Our first eruption; thither, or elsewhere;
For this infernal pit shall never hold
Celestial spirits in bondage, nor the abyss
Long under darkness cover. But these thoughts
Full counsel must mature. Peace is despaired;
For who can think submission ? War, then, war,
Open or understood, must be resolved.”

He spake; and to confirm his words, out-flew
Millions of flaming swords, drawn from the thighs
Of mighty cherubim : the sudden blaze
Far round illumined hell. Highly they raged
Against the Highest, and fierce with grasped arms
Clashed on their sounding shields the din of war,
Hurling defiance toward the vault of heaven.
There stood a hill not far, whose grisly top

Belched fire and rolling smoke; the rest entire
Shone with a glossy scurf, undoubted sign
That in his womb was hid metallic ore,
The work of sulphur. Thither, winged with speed,
A numerous brigade hastened; as when bands

675 suggestion of the diabolic plot on which the poem hinges ! — 656. Eruption. Etymology and meaning! - 658. Abyss, here, and usually in Par. Lost, Chaos. - 660. Despaired (of). So Shakes. says, “Despair thy charm.” Macbeth, V. VII. So 'think (of) submission,' next line. — 662. Understood. Secret. So "understood relations.' Macbeth, III. iv. The kind of war is discussed, Book II.41, 187, etc. The speech closes very grandly. Point out its order of thoughts and its rhetorical merits. — 666. Illumined. “Another true Miltonic picture.” Brydges. — 668. Clashed, etc. So Roman soldiers applaud with sword smiting shield? — 669. Heaven. “Milton forgets that the scene is in Hell.” Keightley. No: the defiance is consciously against heaven, whose general (lirection they know, and whose zenith is the very throne of God. See III, 57, 58. — 670. To the burning lake and the hot mainland he adds a volcano. — 672. Entire translates Lat. totum, or omne ? 673. Womb, interior. So in Shakes. and Virgil. His. See note, I. 254. - 674. Work, etc. Metals were generally supposed to be composed of mercury as a metallic basis and sulphur as a cement. The plentifulness of ores in the form of sulphurets favored this belief? Winged with speed. Make prose of this. — 675. Brigade (Fr. brigade, troop ; Ital. brigata ; Fr. briguée ; brigue, contention). Our military terms mostly come from the Fr.; as platoons, companies, battalions, brigades, divisions, corps; two or more of each of these bodies form

Of pioneers, with spade and pickaxe armed,
Forerun the royal camp, to trench a field,
Or cast a rampart. Mammon led them on,
Mammon, the least erected spirit that fell

From heaven ; for even in heaven his looks and thoughts
Were always downward bent, admiring more
The riches of heaven's pavement, trodden gold,
Than aught divine or holy else enjoyed
In vision beatific. By him first
Men also, and by his suggestion taught,

685 Ransacked the centre, and with impious hands Rifled the bowels of their mother Earth For treasures better hid. Soon had his crew Opened into the hill a spacious wound, And digged out ribs of gold. Let none admire 690 That riches grow in hell : that soil may best Deserve the precious bane. And here let those Who boast in mortal things, and, wondering, tell Of Babel and the works of Memphian kings,

ing one of the next higher. –676. Pioneers (Lat. pes, foot; Fr. pionnier), footsoldiers preceding an army as laborers. “Angels are not promoted by comparison with sappers and miners." Lan lor. True ; but Milton's object at this instant is perhaps to satirize rather than promote! – 677. Camp, army. – 678. Mammon (Syriac, meaning riches). Plutus, Greek goil of riches, blind and lame, alone of the gods was despised in heaven by Hercules as being a friend of the bad and a corrupter of the good. He dwelt under Spain in regions full of mineral wealth. See Faerie Queene, II. VII; Matt. vi. 24; Luke xvi. 9, 11. - 679. Erected. Upright in two senses ? — 682. Gold. Rev. xxi. 21, “The street of the city was pure gold.” — 683. Aught ... else = anything besides. — 684. Vision beatific, 'the scholastic phrase for the joys of heaven.' In verses On Time, 1. 18, Milton literally translates visio beatifica, 'happy making sight.' – 686. Centre, the earth itself, not the centre of the earth. So repeatedly in Shakes. Impious (Lat. impius, undutiful to a parent), unfilial. — 688. Better hid. Aurum irrepertum et sic melius situm cum terra celat, gold undiscovered and so better situated, while the earth hides it. Horace, Od. III. iii, 49, Crew. Used disparagingly ? — 690. Admire (Lat. admiror, to wonder). In hell. So in Spenser, “ •Twas but a little stride that did the house of riches from hell-mouth divide."-692. Bane (A.S. bana, murderer ; destruction). — 694. Babel. Babylon, or the Temple of Belus? See Class. Dict. Works, etc., the pyramids ! Memphian. See Class. Dict.

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Learn how tneir greatest monuments of fame,
And strength, and art, are easily outdone
By spirits reprobate, and in an nour
What in an age they, with incessant toil
And hands innumerable, scarce perform.
iNigh on the plain, in many cells prepared,
That underneath had veins of liquid fire
Sluiced from the lake, a second multitude
With wondrous art founded the massy ore
Severing each kind, and scummed the bullion dross.
A third as soon had formed within the ground
A various mould, and from the boiling cells
By strange conveyance filled each hollow nook;
As in an organ, from one blast of wind,
To many a row of pipes the sound-board breathes.
Anon out of the earth a fabric huge
Rose like an exhalation, with the sound
Of dulcet symphonies and voices sweet,
Built like a temple, where pilasters round


696. Strength = of strength ? or how their strength ? – 698-9. Age ... innumerable. It took 360,000 men nigh 20 years to build one pyramid. — 700. Cells that were prepared by them for this purpose. — 702. Sluiced, conducted in fumes ? — 703. Founded, melted (Lat. funděre, to pour ; Fr. fondre, to melt). — 704. Bullion (Fr. bouillir, to boil), boiling. Keightley makes bullion = metallic. Others make it fr. Lat. bulla, a knob, seal, or stamp, and 'bullion dross, the uncoined ball or mass of gold.' 706. Various, variously wrought ? Note the different bands of workmen simultaneously engaged. — 709. Sound-board, a long box above the wind-chest, divided by thin partitions into grooves that run from the front to the back, conveying the wind to the different rows of pipes. The great temple is now finished, but is wholly underground! -.710. Anon, etc. These gigantic beings lift the shining structure to its place! In 1637 Milton may have witnessed, in a court-masque in London, the following scene: “The earth opened, and there rose up a richly-adorned palace, seeming all of goldsmith's work, with porticos vaulted on pilasters . . . above these ran an architrave, frieze, and cornice ... a peristylium of two orders, Doric and Ionic.” The Stage Condemned, 1698, quoted by Todd. -- 711. Exhalation. Points of resemblance? – 713. Temple. Prof. Himes well points out the wonderful similarity to the Pantheon. See in our Introduction the extrart, from Himes's Study of



Were set, and Doric pillars overlaid
With golden architrave; nor did there want
Cornice or frieze, with bossy sculptures graven:
The roof was fretted gold. Not Babylon
Nor great Alcairo such magnificence,
Equalled in all their glories, to enshrine
Belus or Serapis their gods, or seat
Their kings, when Egypt with Assyria strove
In wealth and luxury. The ascending pile
Stood fixed her stately highith ; and straight the doors,
Opening their brazen folds, discover, wide
Within, her ample spaces, o'er the smooth

And level pavement. Froin the arched roof,
Pendent by subtle magic, many a row
Of starry lamps and blazing cressets, fed
With naphtha and asphaltus, yielded light
As from a sky. The hasty multitude

- 730
Admiring entered ; and the work some praise,
And some the architect. His hand was known

Paradise Lost ; see also our representation of the Pantheon. Pilasters, square columns usually set in a wall with a fourth or fifth of the diameter projecting. – 714. Doric. The Pantheon has Corinthian pillars ? Doric are more suitable for a council hall ? —- 715. Architrave, the great beam resting on the pillars. – 716. Cornice, the moulded projection above the frieze, which last is just above the architrave. See illustrations of architecture in the books. Bossy, in relief. – 717. Fretted (A. S. fraetwian, to adorn ; or Ital. fratto, broken, or ferrata, window-grating). – 718. Great Alcairo, Memphis. --- 720. Serapis, a god typifying the Nile and fertility, by some identified with Osiris. See note on 1. 478. – 723. Her stately highth being fixed ? Some explain by saying fixed as to her stately height. See I. 92. – 724. Folds (= Lat. valro, leaves or folds of a door). Discover, etc. Disclose ample spaces within ? - 725. Within, adverb modified by wule ? -- 727. Pendent row of lanıps. — 728. Cressets, open vessels, jars, or cages, in which tarred ropes, etc., are burnt for beacon lights ; hence such lights themselves ; any great lights. Fr. croisette? - 729. Naph. tha, a limpid, bituminous, highly inflammable liquid. Asphaltus, native bitumen, compact, brittle, combustible. -- 730. As from a sky. The Pantheon is lighted from the sky by a round opening 26 feet in diameter in the centre of the roof. — 732. Architect. Does Milton identify Mammon with Mulciber? Masson and nearly or quite all the critics but Professor Himes

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