« הקודםהמשך »
Thus Satan ; and him thus the anarch old,
Word coined by Milton ? --989. Faltering .... incomposed. Why so represented ? — 990. I know thee, etc. A Greek idiom. See Luke iv. 34. Why does not Chaos call him by name? -- 997. Poured out by millions. So old Chaos thought; but his intellect was naturally or unnaturally muddled, and he had been too much frightened (he was easily frightened, as in I. 543 ?) to know the facts. Perhaps Satan (I. 170) and Moloch (II. 78, 79) thonght so too. But they all mistook thunderbolts, etc., for victorious angels? The Messiah vanquished single-handed the rebel host. VI 880–2. — 998. Frontiers. Prof. Himes remarks that as the darkest time of night is just before day,' so the pavilion of Chaos is on the frontiers. See his diagram, Introduction, p.xxvii.-999. Can do, will serve. “ Satan has judged rightly. The old Anarch is in a state of resentment.” Masson. — 1001. Our. Keightley and nearly all the commentators follow Dr. Pearce, who in 1732 substituted your for our. Masson restores our, 'a form of speech,' he says, 'which implicated all existing beings.' 'Your 'might have seemed impolite? It is just possible that the timid monarch means that his dominion would not be so encroached upon if its intestine broils did not exist ? — 1004. Heaven and Earth constituting another world. — 1005. Golden chain. Allegorical ? Love? Providence ? “the great chain of eternal order,' of which Burke makes mention ? 'the chain of being'? What did Milton know of the law of gravitation ? Compare, “Thy chains the unmeasured universe surround,” in Bowring's translation of Derzhaviu's Ode to the Deity; also in Thomson's Seasons (Summer), –
Hung o'er my re:ilm, linked in a golden chain
He ceased ; and Satan stayed not to reply,
“ 'Tis by thy secret strong attractive force,
Thy systeni rolls entire." The commentators cite Iliad, VIII. 19, where Jupiter boasts that he could rlraw up earth ocean, etc., with a golden chain, etc. ; but there is no resemblance between the two passages. -- 1013. Like a pyramid of fire. 'A magnificent sinuile, suggesting the dwindling radiance of the angel's bulk as it shoots rapidly upward from the sight.' Masson. — 1017-18. Argo passed ... betwixt. “A slight slip of memory, for it was after emerging that the Argo had to pass through the Symplegades." Keightley. But the rocks were only four or five miles from the Bosporus, and they were wandering rocks. Furtherniore, Herodotus, Polybius, and Appian make the Bosporus extend from these rocks 120 stadia to Byzantium, a fact that seems to have slipped from the commentator's memory! Argo. The famous ship in which Jason and his associates went after the golden fleece. See Class. Dict. — 1019. Ulysses being on the larboard. — 1020. Other whirlpool. Scylla. See Class. Dict. Ovid (Met. XIV. 51) calls this water parvus gurges, small whirlpool ; and Virgil (Æn. JII. 425) represents it as drawing ships upon the rocks.' – 1021-22. These lines illustrate that echoing of sense by sound which
Following his track, such was the will of Heaven,
But now at last the sacred influence
Pope praises, “The line, too, labors, and the words move slow." - 1024. Amain. See 1. 165. — 1028. Bridge. This is described X. 293 to 320. “Milton tells in magnificent verse the making of the causeway. Nothing can be greater than the image of these two ghastly fornis (Sin and Death) ranging Chaos, and beating into a shoal the solid and the dry, bound with Death's petrific mace into fastness, wrought into a mole immense.” Stopfore it. Brooke. -- 1029. Orb. This is not the earth, but the outer hollow sphere inclosing our Universe. See diagram at the end of this book.* The Arabic Al Sirat (i. e. the path) stretches over hell and is narrower than the edge of a sword; yet on this bridge is the road to the Mohammedan paradise ! — 103334. God and good angels. Same phrase in Herrick's Noble Numbers, p. 74, “God and good angels guide thee”; and in Shakes. Richard III., V. III., “God and good angels fight on Richmond's side." Sacred. Why? See the beginning of Book III. Influence. Etymological meaning ? astrological ?.
1036. Shoots far. This reminds us of the titles applied to the sun-god Apollo, whom, in sonie respects, Satan much resembles, “the far-darter,' the shooter,'
* The ‘orbs ' or 'spheres' were conceived to be concentric, and ten in number; the outer one opaque; the ninth, a crystalline ocean lining the tenth, like the inside of a pearly shell; the other eight transparent. The heavenly bodies were supposed to be fixed in their respective spheres and to revolve with them. The earth being in the centre, the nearest spbere was that in which the moon was fastened ; the next was that of the planet Mercury ; the third, that of Venus ; fourth, the Sun ; fifth Mars ; sixth, Jupiter ; seventh, Saturn; eighth, the fixed stars ; ninth, the crystalline sphere; tenth, the primum mobile, the outer shell, or 'utmost orb of this frail world.
Wafts on the calmer wave by dubious light,
etc. See III. 586. — 1037. Nature, creation, our world, cosmos as opposed to chaos! - 1042–43. Wafts himself! Holds the port. Lat. tenet portum, as in Virgil, Æn. 1.400. — 1046–47. Weighs, poises ? See l. 905. Empyreal. I. 117. – 1048. Undetermined etc. “From the portion that was seen, the eye could not determine whether its margin was straight or curved." heightley. Explanation sufficient? – 1019. Opal towers and battlements. Prof. Himes suggests that the crystal wall’ of heaven is simply the horizon wall. The idea is strikingly beautiful. If it is correct, then perhaps, like the Latin arces, the 'opal towers and battlements' may be mountain-peaks in that hori. zon, dipped in the colors of heaven. Angelic art and skill may have added to their beauty and grandeur. See I. 733, 749 ; IV. 542-8; V. 758–9. Coinciding with the horizon line may be precipices like the chalk cliffs of Albion, and at their base the ocean surges of Chaos may beat. See VII. 210 to 215; also the Preface. — 1051. Golden chain. See 1005. - 1052. This pendent world, Shakespeare's phrase in Measure for Measure, III. 1. 126. World. Not our earth, as so many commentators have thought, but our universe of stars, all seeming like a single shining point ! - 1053. Smallest. Is it the true relative size, or only the apparent, the optical effect, that is here sought to be indicated ? Reason for your opinion ?
END OF BOOK II.