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Eastern Church was far higher than the Western. No one can read the account of the capture of Constantinople by the crusaders of the thirteenth century, without perceiving that it is the occupation of a refined and civilized capital by a horde of comparative barbarians. The arrival of the Greek scholars in Europe in the fifteenth century, was the signal for the most progressive step that Western theology has ever made. And in earlier ages, whilst it might still be thought that Rome, not Constantinople, was the natural refugo of the arts of the ancient classical world, the literature of the Church was almost entirely confined to the Byzantine hemisphere..........
“ The straws of custom show which way the spirit of an institution blown. The primitive posture of standing in prayer still retains its ground in the East. Organs and musical instruments have nover penetrated into its worship. Jewish ordinances still keep their hold on Abyssinia. Even the schism which convulsed the Russian Church nearly at the same time that Latin Christendom was rent by the German Reformation, was not a forward, but a retrograde movement, a protest, not against abuses, but against innovation. The calendars of the Churches show the eagerness with which, whilst the one, at least till a recent period, placed herself at the head of European civilization, the other still studiously lags behind it. The new style,' which the world owes to the enlightened activity of Popo Gregory XIII., after having with difficulty overcome the Protestant scruples of Germany, Denmark, and Switzerland, and last of all, (with shame be it said), of England and Sweden, has never been able to penetrate into the wide dominions of the old Byzantine and the modern Russian empires, which still hold to the Greek calendar, eleven days bebind the rest of the civilized world."-pp. 31-3. Proceeding to the sacraments, he says:
--“ The Latin doctrine, on this subject, is by Protestants so frequently regarded as the highest pitch of superstition-by Roman Catholics as the highest pitch of reverence of which the subject is capable—that it may be instructive to both to see the contrast between the freedom and reasonableness of the sacramental doc. trine as held by the highest Roman doctors, compared with the stiff, the magical, the antiquarian character of the same doctrine as represented in tho East."
“ There can be no question that the original form of baptism, the very meaning of the word, was complete immersion in the deep baptismal waters ; and that, for at least four ceuturies, any other form as either uuknown, or regarded exceptional, almost a moustrous case. To this form the Eastern Church still rigidly adberes, and the most illustrious aud venerable portion of it, that
of the Byzantine Empire, absolutely repudiates and ignores any
"In the first age of the Church it was customary for the Apostles to lay their hands on the heads of the newly baptized converts, that they might receive the gifts of the Spirit.' The gifts' vanished, but the custoin of laying on of lands remained. It remained, and was continued, and so in the Greek Church is still continued, at the baptism of children as of adults. Confirmation is, with them, simultaneous with the act of the baptismal immersion. But, tho Latin Church, whilst it adopted or retained the practice of admittiug infants to baptism, soon set itself to remedy the obvious defect arising from their unconscious age, by separating, and postponing, and giving a new life and meaning to the rite of confirmation. The two ceremonies, which, in the Eastern Church are indissolubly confounded, are now, throughout Western Christendom, by a salutary innovation, each made to minister to the edification of the indivi. dual, and completion of the whole baptismal ordinance.”
one the Protestant 3d, and last of all, has never been able Byzantine and the 10 Greek calendar
, 1."-pp. 31-3.
Protestants so fra stition-by Rana rhich the subject is I see the contrast
sacramental dans pared with the strin same doctrine ai
Of Extreme Uuction.
“In like manner the East retained, and still retains, the aposto. lical practice meutioned by S. James--for the sick to call in the elders of the Church, to auoint him with oil, and pray over him, that he may recover.......
"But the Latin Church, seeing that the special object for which the ceremony was first instituted, the recovery of the sick, had long ceased to be effected, determined to change its form, that it still might be preserved as an instructive symbol. And thus the anointing with oil' of the first century, and of the Oriental Church, has become, with the Latins, the last, the Extreme Unction of the dying man, a ceremony, doubtless, to our notions, useless, perhaps superstitious, but on the whole more reasonable than the mere perpetuation of a shadow, when the substance is departed.”—pp. 33 5.
He now takes a wider, and still more interesting range. “There is yet another more general subject, on which the widest difference, involving the same principle, exists between the two communivus, uamely, the whole relation of art to religious worship.
Let any one enter an Oriental church, and he will at once be struck by the contrast which the architecture, the paintings, the very aspect of the ceremonial, present to the churches of the West. Often, indeed, this may arise from the poverty or oppression under which most Christian communities labour whose lot has been cast in the Ottoman empire; but, often the altars may blaze with gold, the dresses of the priest stiffen with the richest silks of Brousa, yet the contrast romains. The difference lies in tho fact, that art, as such, has no place in the worship or in the edifice. There is no aiming at effect, no dim religious light, no beauty of form or colour, beyond what is produced by the mere display of gorgeous and bar. baric pomp. Yet it would be a great mistake to infer from this absence of art, indeed, no one who has never seen it could infer, that this involves a more decided absence of form and of ceremonial. The mystical gestures, the awo which surrounds the sacerdotal functions, the long repetitions, the severance of the sound from thio sense, of the wind from the act, both in priest and people, are not less, but more remarkable than in the Churches of the West. The traveller, who finds himself in the interior of the old cathedral of Malta, after having been accustomed for a few weeks or months to the ritual of the convents and churches of the Levant, experiences almost the same emotion as when he passes again from the services of the Roman Catholic, to those of the reformed Churches.”
This is extremely well put, and we can attest the justice of it by personal experience. The least travelled Protestant would not find half the difficulty in really following a High Mass abroad, that we did in only attempting to follow a Greek service. But strongly recommending the perusal of the whole Lecture, though not necessarily endorsing it all, we must bring these citations to a close.
“The variety, the stir, the life, the turmoil, the drive,' as our American brethren would call it, is, in every western Church, contrasted with the immobility, the repose, the inaction of Greece, of Syria, and of Russia. It is instructive for the stanch adherents of the Reformation to feel that the Latin Church, which we have been accustomed to regard as our chief antagonist, has, after all, the samo elements of Western life and civilization, as those of which we are justly proud ; that, whatever it be, as compared with England or Germany, it is, as compared with Egypt or Syria, enlightened, progressive, in one word, Protestant, It is instructive for the opponents of the Reformation to see that in the Eastern section of the Christian Church, vast as it is, the whole Western Church, Latin and German, Papal and Lutheran, is often regarde l as essentially one ; that the first concessions to reason and freedom, which involve by necessity all the subsequent stages, were made long
before Luther, in the bosom of the Roman Church itself ; that the Papal See first led the way in schism from the parent stock in liberty of private judgment; that some of the most important points in which tho Latin is now distinguished from the Greek Church, have been actually copied and imported from the new Churches of the Protestant West. To trace this family resemblanco between the different branches of the Occidental Church, is the polemical object of an able treatise by a zealous member of the Church of Russia ; to trace it in a more friendly and hopeful spirit, is a not unworthy aim of students of the Church of England.........
“And we, too, with all our energy and life, may learn something from the otherwise unparalled sight of whole nations and races of men, penetrated by the religious sentiment wbich visibly sways their minds, even when it fails to reach their conduct, which, if it has produced but few whom we should call saints or philosopliers, has produced, through centuries of oppression, whole armies of confe-sors and martyrs. We may learn something from the sight of a calm strength reposing in the quietness and confidence of a treasure of hereditary belief, which its possessor is content to value for himself, without forcing it on the reception of others. may learn something from the sight of churches, where religion is not abandoned to the care of women and children, but is claimed as the right and the privilege of men ; where the Church reposes, not so much on the force and influence of its clergy, as on the independent knowledge and manly zeal of its laity."-pp. 55.9.
We are surprised, alike by the length of our citations, and by the little way we have made, notwithstanding, in the volume. We would fain have made larger extracts from the different Lectures, illustrating the Council of Nicæa, its principal characters—the part taken by them their coming, their going, their feasting with the Emperor. There is, perhaps, nothing new in the narrative, but it has never been put together go well or so attractively. Nor is the biography of Constantine other than a masterpiece in point of style. Commending all these to our readers, we think that the following description of the rendezvous cannot but tempt them to pass beyond the threshold.
“Beneath us lay the long inland lake, the Ascanian Lake, which, communicating at its Western extremity by a small inlet with the Sea of Marmora, fills up almost the whole valley ; itself a characteristic of the conformation of this part of Asia Minor. Such another is the lake of Apollonius, seen from the summit of the Mysian Olympis
. Such another is the smaller lake, seen in traversing the plain on the way from Broussa. "At the head of the lake appeared the oblong space enclosed by
'drite,' as our
after all, the
the ancient walls, of which the rectangular form indicates, with unniistakable precision, the original founders of the city. It was the outline given to all the Oriental towns built by the successors of Alexander and their imitators. Antioch, Damascus, Philadelphia, Sebaste, Palmyra, were all constructed on the same model, of a complete square, intersected by four straight streets, adorned with a colonnade on each side. This we know to have been the appearance of Nicæa, as founded by Lysimachus, and rebuilt by Antigonus. And this is still the form of the present walls, which, although they enclose a larger space than the first Greek city, yet are evidently as early as the time of the Roman empire ; little later, if at all, than the reign of Constantine. Within their circuit all is now wilderness ; over broken columns, and through tangled thickets, the traveller, with difficulty makes his way to the wretched Turkish village of Is-nick, which occupies the centre of the vacant space. In the midst of this village, surrounded by a few ruined mosques, on whose summits stand the never-failing storks of the deserted cities of the East, remains a solitary Christian church, dedicated to 'the repose of the Virgin.' Within the church is a rude picture commemorating the one event which, amidst all the vicissitudes of Nicæa, has secured for it an immortal name.
" To delineate this event, to transport ourselves back into the same season of the year, the chestnut woods then, as now, green with the first burst of summer, the same sloping hills, the same tranquil lako, tho same snow-capped Olympus, from far, broodiug over the whole scene, but, in every other respect, how entirely different ! will be my object in this Lecture.”—pp. 94-5.
Our last, and perhaps most gorgeous extract, must be the portrait of Peter the Great; we have no space left for Vladimir, Ivan the Terrible, or the Russian Church in its early, middle, or reforming age. With him, we bid adieu to Professor Stanley, and in hope to meet agaiı. Only, let him not be ashamed of confessing the faith of Christ crucified before men, or of owning true fellowship with His saints. This even Peter the Mighty did not think beneath him.
“ Look at him, as he presents himself in the gallery of the portraits of the Czars. From Ivan the Terrible, each follow each in grotesque barbaric costume, half Venetian, half Tartar, till sud. denly, without the slightest preparation, Peter breaks in amongst them, in the full uniform of the European soldier. The ancient Czars vanish, to appear no more, and Peter remains with us, occupying henceforward the whole horizon. Countenance, and stature, and manner, and pursuits, are absolutely kept alive in our sight, We see the upturned look, the long black hair falling back from his fine forehead, the fierce eyes glancing from beneath the overhanging