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the soul. If we examine the religious ceremonies of heathen nations, we shall find that they bear a resemblance of the plan adopted by their progenitors in Paradise. They are systems of selftorment; intended expiations of sin, of which a consciousness exists with more or less distinctness; they are ramifications of the self-justifying principle which prevails in every natural heart, and which nothing can eradicate but “the grace of Christ and the inspiration of his Spirit.” They discover a defective view of the evil of sin as being capable of atonement by personal mortification; and, consequently, they imply an unworthy estimate of the Divine character, as requiring and acquiescing in such mortification. What is the religious system of the Mahomedan, the Hindoo, the African; and may I not add, of a corrupted Christianity, in its varied shades of error, but that of the natural heart, as exemplified in the conduct of our first parents? Their legal convictions, however, prepared them for clearer and brighter views of the character of God, of their own state, and of the way of reconciliation. When further light had been diffused on their minds, they gladly exchanged their fig-leaf clothing for one Divinely provided for their use.
Such convictions of guilt and sinfulness, though they are of no avail in making atonement for sin; and though, were they to end in self-righteous efforts, however sincere and earnest, they must
leave the soul in ultimate despair, yet are they not to be despised. They are often preparatory to a revelation of mercy, as they were in the case of our first parents. They are not however necessarily productive of that “Godly sorrow which worketh repentance unto salvation, not to be repented of.” In the cases of Cain, and Ahab, and others, remorse does not appear to have ended in true repentance; but to have worn off, without effecting any vital change: and in the cases of Ahithophel and Judas, it ended in despair and suicide. Satan would have been well pleased that our first parents should have exchanged the fruit of the Tree of Knowledge for the leaf of the fig-tree, could he have kept them from the Tree of Life. The revelation of a Saviour from the guilt and power of sin is indispensable to the production of true humiliation, self-despair, peace of conscience, and love to God.
The fig-leaf may fret the body, but cannot furnish the heart with any means of self-renunciation, nor with any solid hope of salvation.* It was to his
* Comp. Col. ü. 23. This very difficult passage may, perhaps be rendered plain by placing a comma after Tino The bodily observances and privations which had been referred to, availed indeed “ to the satisfaction of the flesh,” or the carnal mind in man; but not, ev tvun Tin, in any respect that could be honourable or profitable to those who practised them. Tng capa κος is, I apprehend, of the same import with τε νοος της σαρκος in ver. 18. q. e. Voluntary services over and beyond what was commanded by God, an external show of humiliation, such as
“ Redeemer," “ the living God,”. that Job addressed himself when he said, “I have heard of thee by the hearing of the ear but now mine eye seeth thee, wherefore I abhor myself and repent in dust and ashes.”
The narrative of Moses, after describing the feelings and conduct of the guilty pair; introduces to our attention an appearance of Jehovah, who is stated to have visited them after their apostacy. The character and ulterior object of the Divine Visitant will require a few remarks in the inquiry we have instituted.
It seems probable from the description of the inspired historian, that a personal manifestation of Jehovah was vouchsafed to our first parents on this occasion. “ They heard the voice of the Lord God walking* in the garden in the cool of
was made in the worship of angels, and a neglect of bodily gratification, might have an appearance of wisdom; but that appearance was delusive, since no real benefit, no respect or reward (tipn) could be derived from them in the sight of God.
* The verb, in Kal, a participle of which is here rendered walking, imports, I am aware, when it precedes “another verb or participle, the continuance or increase of the action expressed by such verb or participle.” But this is not its situation here. It stands alone, and is in the hithpael conjugation. The word 37p translated voice in ver. 8 and 10, does not necessarily import an articulate voice; but is used for any kind of sound; for that of thunder, Exod. xix. 16, 17.-that of a shaken leaf, Lev. xxvi. 36.-the roaring of a lion, Job iv. 10.-the blast of a trumpet, Job xxxix. 24.-the dashing of waves, Ps. xciii. 3.—and the sound of rain, 1 Kings, xviii. 41. In the passage we are considering it seems to mean the sound of footsteps. It may
the day.” The notion of walking, when introduced without a metaphor is a personal attribute. And if a personal appearance of Jehovah was made, it must have been THE ALUE,* the second Person in his official character who appeared to them. For “ No man hath seen God,” the essence of Deity," at any time - The only begotten Son who is in the bosom of the Father, He hath revealed Him." He has been at all times the personator, the visible manifestation of the invisible Deity. Bishop Bull, in his Defence of the Nicene Creed, to has abundantly proved, by testimonies of the Ante-Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, whose opinions on the subject he traces to tradition from the Apostles,—by the earlier testimonies of Philo Judæus, and the Targums of Onkelos and Jonathan, that it was the WORD, or Son of God, who spake to our first parents in Paradise, and afterwards held intercourse with the Patriarchs and Moses. To this subject we shall have occasion to advert again in speaking of the Divine revelations which were vouchsafed to the Patriarchs.
remarked that THE VOICE OF JEHOVAH, the footsteps of the person so called, was heard before he uttered the inquiry, “ Adam, where art thou ;” and that what Adam previously heard was the cause of his flight. * See Letter XXI.
† Cap. i. Sect. I. I “Gen. iii. 8, pro audiverunt vocem Domini Dei, Targum Onkelos et Targum Ionathani ascriptum habent, audiverunt vocem VERBI Domini Dei. Ibidem, ver. 9. pro et Deus vocarit
peace to fallen
This hypothesis concerning the person who appeared, and the human character of that appearance, corresponds with the evident design of the visit itself. The design was one of mercy and
man, and of vengeance on the Tempter. It corresponds, as all manifestations of Immanuel have done, with the ultimate object of God's manifestation in the flesh. Traces of this object we shall find in every future line of the narrative, as we pursue our inquiry. Moses writes in the character of an Evangelist, and his facts epitomize the Gospel History with the inferences which are drawn from it in the Apostolic Epistles.
It was “ in the cool of the day," on the wings of the morning or evening breeze,* that the sound of the approaching Visitant reached the ears of Adam and his wife. Why should the historian have mentioned this seemingly trivial circumstance, unless it had an analogical reference
Adamum : Targum Hierosolymitanum; et VERBUM Domini vocavit Adamum.--Ipse (Dei Filius) enim et ad humana semper colloquia descendit, ab Adam usque ad patriarchas et prophetas, &c. Tertullian." See Bp. Bull as above. * Marg. Reading : “ The wind of the day.”
In tropical climates, the morning and evening breeze is one great source of daily refreshment. The break of day is called its breathing in the Hebrew of Cant. ii. 17. iv. 6. To this circumstance St. Peter's word Avayugis, Acts iii. 19, seems to be an allusion. The times of refreshment are, literally, the returns of the morning and evening breeze. See Harmer's Outlines. p. 282.