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between God and his soul then ceasing, which vital connexion is the cause and means and reality of spiritual life, as that which subsists between the material air and the body is the cause and means and reality of natural life. I need not add that the word death is commonly used in the New Testament to denote the extinction of spiritual life; indeed, it is so used in the Old Testament also. I must own that the above mentioned limitation to the punishment by which it pleased God to sanction the prohibition of eating the forbidden fruit, bordering as it does, in the view which it takes of the evil of sin, on the Palagian heresy, has greatly surprised me. I believe that, as both the component parts of man, his soul and body, were implicated in the guilt of the transgression, both were likewise implicated in the punishment that followed it. The prevalence of the carnal mind is a full proof of spiritual death, as is the prevalence of putrefaction in the body a full proof of natural death. “To be carnally minded is death.” When the life of the body is extinct, another kind of life, foreign and incompatible with its proper life, soon succeeds,—the life of the worm bred in its bosom, and derived from its own putrefaction. The extinction of spiritual life in the soul of man, necessarily produced “ the worm that never dies,” because its nutriment can never fail, the gnawing of a guilty conscience, the torment of a fallen spirit,-begun
in its embodied state on earth, and immortalized in “ the fire” of God's displeasure " which is never quenched. My friend will earnestly join me in saying,” From this life, Good Lord, deliver us,-From that death, Good Lord, restore us!
This fundamental error, for as such I must consider it, originates in that to which every other theological error may be traced,—an inadequate view of the evil of sin. It may be said that the act of plucking fruit from a prohibited tree is a small offence: but what malignity is there in any sin, that was not comprehended in this act of our first parents ? The law of Paradise has been considered as an arbitrary precept, unfounded, like the moral law, in reason and nature. It was, indeed, arbitrary in its letter; but in its spirit, it involved both the branches of the moral code. It was the criterion of man's love to God, and of his love to the future descendants of his own body. In every age God has issued such positive commands. They made a part of the Mosaic institute, and are incorporated with the Christian dispensation ; but they have always been tests of obedience, requisitions of supreme regard to God our Creator and Redeemer. A failure in that regard is the essence of sin, which St. John has defined as being a want of conformity to the law,* the law of love. How great a
failure the sin of Paradise was, may be inferred from the circumstances of the case, the consequences which followed it, and the atonement necessary to make way for forgiveness. It was an act of idolatry, blasphemy, perjury, and apostacy,* as God was its object: it involved cruelty and murder, as it related to Adam's posterity, the murder of millions both in soul and body. “By one man sin entered into the world and death by sin, and so death passed upon all men; for that all have sinned. Through the offence of one many are dead. By the offence of one judgment came upon all men to condemnation." And it is plain that the death, which the one man's sin introduced, is eternal death, because it is opposed by the apostle to eternal life, introduced under the reign of grace through righteousness, by Jesus Christ our Lord.+
The law of Paradise and that of Sinai were substantially the same, though circumstantially different, both as to the precept and penalty. The substance of the precepts in both instances was, “ Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart; and thy neighbour as thyself.” The penalty of both was the loss of Divine favour,
* This seems the direct meaning of the word Trapartwa, used by the apostle in describing the cause of death and condemnation in Rom v. 15, &c.
† Rom. v. 21.
and exposure to “ wrath to come." In the interval before the law of Moses,* sin was in the world; and this affords proof of existing law during that period; for sin is not imputed where there is no law. But as “ death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over them that had not sinned after the similitude of Adam's transgression,” it is evident that, during the patriarchal period, the original law in its substance continued in force and exacted its penalty. And that penalty, in the original enactment, and at the renewal of the law from Sinai, is the same.
In the day thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die,” was the sanction of the original law: “Cursed is
every one that continueth not in all things that are written in the book of the law, to do them," is the sanction of the law as republished by Moses. During the Patriarchal and Levitical periods, the state of mankind was, essentially, the same.
6 All who were under law were under the curse: it could not be otherwise ; for “the law,” since the fall“ worketh death.” It must necessarily do so. But there were those under both dispensations, who, through the promised seed of the woman, the seed of Abraham who was to restore the blessing, passed from death unto life, and became heirs of the righteousness which is by faith,
* Axgo vojs, Rom. v. 13.
The case is the same still, and will remain so till the economy of this world is closed. Salvation must be by grace through faith in the promised seed who hath appeared now in the end of the world to put away sin by the sacrifice of himself. All those who have not obtained, through grace, an interest in the second Adam, the Lord from heaven, are in the state of sin and condemnation, into which the sin of the first Adam plunged all his posterity. The one sin of the first Adam constituted all his posterity sinners, both by its imputation and communication, because all were under his covenant. The one righteousness of the second Adam intitles all who are brought under his covenant to justification of life, and by the communication of a new nature qualifies them for enjoying it. The fifth chapter of St. Paul's epistle to the Romans places this whole matter in a clear point of view, and should always be read in connexion with the narrative of the fall which is under our consideration.
We shall have future opportunities of discussing the fatal consequences which followed the sin of Adam, and the nature of the atonement necessary to open a door for mercy, which will unite to show, in the strongest light, the enormity of the first offence to all but those who imitate that offence, by charging God with unkindness, injus