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tered with the utmost caution; and that he durst not have said it, had it not been an acknowledged truth.

Titus, in the speech he makes to the two tyrants, Simon and John, after the temple was burnt, and great part of the city taken, laying before them the great kindness of the Romans to the Jewish nation, says', “ First, we gave you the country to possess, " and set over you kings of your own people. After“ wards” (plainly referring to the time we are speaking of, when Augustus sent a Roman governor among them, afterwards) “we preserved to you

your own country laws, and permitted you to “ live, not only with regard to yourselves, but with “ regard to others also, as you wouldk.”

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Τοιγαρούν υμάς επήγειρε κατά Ρωμαίων η Ρωμαίων φιλανθρωπία οι πρώτον μεν υμίν τήν τε χώραν έδoμεν νέμεσθαι, και βασιλείς ομοφύλους επεστήσαμεν, έπειτα τους πατρίους νόμους ετηρήσαμεν, και ζήν ου μόνον καθ' εαυτούς, αλλά και τους άλλους επιτρέψαμεν ως έβούλεσθε το δε μέγιστον, δασμολογείν τε υμίν επί τω Θεώ, και αναθήματα συλλέγειν επετρέψαμεν, και τους ταύτα φέροντας ούτε ένουθετήσαμεν, ούτε εκωλύσαμεν, ίν' ημών γένησθε πλουσιότεροι πολέμιοι, και παρασκευάσησθε ταϊς ημετέροις χρήμασι Kal quãy. De Bell. Jud. 1. 6. c. 6. 9. 2. p. 1284, fin.

* The Jews, by the distinction of meats and drinks, and other rites, were a people wholly differing from the rest of the world ; and no doubt this clause has a reference to all the condescensions and compliances wbich the Romans made to them upon count of their singular customs; such as Pilate's going out to them, because they were afraid of being defiled by entering into a heathen's house, his sending away the military ensigns with the images of Cæsar upon them from Jerusalem to Cæsarea, and all the governors before him entering Jerusalem with ensigns that had no images on them, Antiq. I. 18. c. 4. §. 1. and his removing the bucklers without images to Cæsarea, Phil. Leg. ad Caium, p. 1034, B. But doubtless it refers chiefly to the power the Romans gave them to execute their laws upon others. For it is observable, that this part of Titus's speech, in setting forth the

the ac

This last clause shews that they suffered the Jewish laws to take effect, not upon Jews only, but also upon foreigners; and is explained by Titus himself in another speech : “ Did not ye,” says he to the tyrant John, and those that were with him, “ Did not ye Jews set up these bars to fence off the

holy place ? Have ye not erected pillars herein at “ certain distances, engraven with Grecian and our “ letters, which enjoin that no man should pass these “ bounds? And have not we permitted you to put “ to death those who go beyond, even though it

were a Roman 1?” There were several cases in which the Jewish laws reached the lives of foreigners who dwelt among them, which the Romans could not think merited death; such as idolatry, blasphemy, passing beyond the court of the Gentiles into that of the Jews in the temple, and some others. Notwithstanding, even in these cases, as it

kindness of the Romans to the Jewish nation, rises from the beginning to the end. They did not take away the country from them, as they might bave done by right of conquest, but left them the free possession of it, and placed kings of their own country over them. Afterwards, when they requested to be no longer under kings, thinking they might have a more free use of their own laws under a Roman governor, the Romans preserved to them the free use of their own laws, and permitted them to live not only among themselves, but with others also, as they would, i. e. that their customs and laws should take place, not only with Jews, but with foreigners also; that they should either yield to them, or be punished by them. Nay, what is yet more, suffered them to collect a holy tribute and offerings from all parts of the empire, and send it to Jerusalem without molestation, which in the event proved the enriching their enemies, and arming them against themselves with their own money.

ΤΟύχ ημείς δε τους υπερβάντας υμϊν αναιρεϊν επετρέψαμεν, κάν Ρωμαϊός 745). De Bell. Jud. 1. 6, c. 2. §. 4. p. 1 269, pr.

appears to me from the latter clause of the first of these speeches of Titus, the Romans indulged them in the execution of their own laws. In the lastmentioned case he expressly tells us they did, and that even though the person who transgressed were a Roman. I have before observed to you, that the freest countries had not power given them over Romans: that the Rhodians, Lycians, and Cyzicenians lost their liberties by putting Romans to death. Herein then was a peculiar privilege granted to the Jews above all other free people, that they were permitted in some cases to take away even the lives of Romans themselves. How much more then had they this power over other foreigners? And if they were allowed to execute their laws upon foreigners in capital cases, can any one doubt that they were suffered to execute them upon their own people? Philo tells us certain death was decreed against those Jews who went beyond the bounds prescribed them in the templem. And king Agrippa, in the letter he writes to the emperor Caius, informing him that the high priest entered once a year into the holy of holies, on the day called the fast only, adds, “ And if at any time any one, I say, not of the “ other Jews, but even of the priests, not of the “ lowest of them, but of those who have obtained “ the order immediately next to the high priest, “ should enter either by himself or with the high

priest; and, what is more, if the high priest him“ self should go in two days in the year, or even

η Περιττότερα δε και εξαίρετός εστιν αυτοίς άπασιν ή περί το ιερόν σπουδή. Τεκμήριον δε μέγιστον, θάνατος απαραίτητος ώρισται κατά των εις τους εντός περιβόλους παρελθόντων. Δέχονται γάρ εις τους εξωτέρω τους πανTaxóley zártas tūv &uoe@vãr. Leg. ad Caium, p. 1022, fin.

“ thrice or four times on the fast-day, he suffers “ death inevitablen.”

Titus, in the place before quoted, affirms, “ We “ have preserved to you your own country laws.” Are not the penalties enjoined one necessary part of the laws ? Are they not, indeed, that which animates and gives life to them ? If then the Romans allowed not the Jews to execute the punishments threatened, with what truth could it be said that they preserved to them their laws ? Josephus asserts the same thing, in a speech he makes to the besieged, declaring, that even to that time their laws had been the care of the Romans. And in another speech, which he makes to them by the command of Titus, tells them, “ The Romans demand the ac“ customed duty which our fathers paid to their “ fathers; and, obtaining this, they will neither waste “ the city nor touch the sacred things. They grant you

that your children, wives, and parents P should “ be free, and that you should possess your own

estates, and they preserve your sacred laws9.”

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η Καν άρα τίς που, ου λέγω των άλλων Ιουδαίων, αλλά και των ιερέων, ουχί των υστάτων, αλλά τών την ευθύς μετά τον πρώτον τάξιν ειληχότων, ή καθ' αυτόν ή μετ' εκείνου συνεισέλθη, μάλλον δε κάν αυτός ο αρχιερεύς δυσιν ημέραις του έτους, ή και τη αυτή τρις, ή και τετράκις εισφοιτήση, θάνατον απαραίτητων υπομένει. Leg. ad Caiunm, p. 1035, pr.

ο οι μέχρι νύν κήδονται των ημετέρων νόμων. De Bell. Jud. 1. 6. c. 2. 3. Ι. p. 1267. 1. 19.

Ρ Ρωμαίοι δε τον συνήθη δασμών αιτούσιν, εν οι πατέρες ημών τους εκείνων πατράσι πάρεσχον, και τούτου τυχόντες, ούτε πορθoύσι την πόλιν, ούτε ψαύουσι των αγίων. διδόασι δ' υμίν τάλλα γενεάς τε ελευθέρας, και κτήσεις τας εαυτών νέμεσθαι, και τους ιερούς νόμους σώζουσι. De Bell. Jud. 1. 5. c. 9. 9. 4. p. 1243. 1. 36.

4 So I think Josephus himself explains the word geves in this very speech, p. 1244. 1. 33. Γενεάς γούν υμετέρας οικτείρατε, και προ And Titus himself professes before God, “that he “ had offered them peace, and the use of their own “ laws'.” To what purpose is all this said, and what good effect could it possibly be supposed to have upon the besieged Jews, if they knew at the same time that the Romans did not allow them that which is the spirit and energy of all laws, viz. the execution of them? Would not this appear to them a downright mockery ? a putting them in mind of the servitude they had hitherto been under to the Romans, who, although they openly professed to allow them the use of their own laws, deprived them of that which is absolutely necessary to their execution, i. e. inflicting the penalties annexed to them?

SECT. X.

Objections answered. It may possibly be objected, that Judas the Galilæan complained that the Jews were deprived of their liberty when Augustus sent Quirinus to annex Judæa to the province of Syria, and enrol their

οφθαλμών εκάστω γενέσθω τέκνα, και γυνή, και γονείς, ούς αναλώσει κατά μικρόν ή λιμός, ή πόλεμος.

Γ Καίσαρ δ' απελογείτο, και περί τούτου τω Θεώ, φάσκων, παρά μεν αυτου Ιουδαίοις ειρήνης και αυτονομίαν προτείνεσθαι, και πάντων αμνηστίαν TÛ TETONJA quéywy. De Bell. Jud. 1. 6. c. 3. §. 5. This

passage

alone is little short of a demonstration that the Jews did obtain of Augustus the autovouía, or free use of their own laws, which they petitioned for. Titus, in apologizing for himself to the God of the Jews for having reduced them to so great an extremity that a woman eat her own son, declares that he offered them peace and aitovouías, as well as an amnesty of all that was past. Is it to be imagined, that when he had subdued their country, and laid such close siege to Jerusalem, he would grant them better terms than they enjoyed before their revolt ?

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