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laus, chiefly, nevertheless, because they desired freedom, and to be under a Roman governor 2.

And this was the general desire of the whole nation“, who, with the consent of Varus the president of Syria, despatched an embassy to Rome to ask for the freedom of being governed by their own laws b: and that this petition might come with the more weight, no fewer than fifty persons are by the decree of the nation sent on this embassy", to whom, when they arrive at Rome, above eight thousand Jews of that city join themselves ", and appear with them before Cæsar. He gives them a hearing, and the sum of their petition is, that they may no longer be governed by a king, but be made part of the province of Syria, and be subject to the presidents which are sent thitherf. Josephus relates exactly the same thing in the book of the Jewish Wars; says that all the relations of the family who hated Archelaus did what in them lay to assist Antipas at

1 Μάλιστα μεν επιθυμούντες ελευθερίας, και υπό Ρωμαίων στρατηγό τετάχθαι. Αntig. 1. 17. C. 9. 3. 4. prop. fin.

4 Διά τό πολλούς είναι τους αυτονομίας γλιχομένους. Ιbid. c. 13. 8. Ι, fin.

b 'Αφίκετο εις την Ρώμην πρεσβεία Ιουδαίων Ουάρου τον απόστολον αυτων τα έθνει επικεχωρηκότος ΥΠΕΡ ΑΙΤΗΣΕΩΣ ΑΥΤΟΝΟΜΙΑΣ. Ιbid. prop. pr.

• Και ήσαν οι μεν πρέσβεις οι αποσταλέντες ΓΝΩΜΗ ΤΟΥ ΕΘΝΟΥΣ πεντήκοντα.

« Συνίσταντο δε αυτούς των επι Ρώμης Ιουδαίων υπέρ οκτακισχιλίους. Ibid. 1. 9, 10, 1Ι.

• οι μεν πρέσβεις μετά του πλήθους των αυτόθι Ιουδαίων αφικνούνται, i. e. into the court held upon this occasion by Augustus Cæsar. Ibid. 3. 14.

f "Ην δε κεφάλαιον αυτούς της αξιώσεως, βασιλείας μεν και τοιώνδε άρχων απηλλάχθαι, προσθήκην δε Συρίας γεγονότας υποτάσσεσθαι τοις εκείσε πεμπομένους στρατηγούς. Ιbid. 8. 2, fin.

Rome; and the principal reason was, because every one of them desired that the nation might live in the use of their own laws under the administration of a Roman governor ; but if they failed of this, they had rather Antipas should be king than Archelaus 8. He adds also, that by the permission of Varus fifty ambassadors were sent to Rome, and that their instructions were to obtain for the nation a freedom of living after their own laws h; that above eight thousand Jews stood with them before Cæsari; and that their petition was, that, being joined to Syria, the government of their country might be administered by Roman presidents k.

He that will compare these passages together must be convinced that the Jews did not understand, by having their country annexed to Syria, and under the power of a Roman governor, that they were to be deprived of their own laws and magistrates; but, on the contrary, that they should hereby obtain a more free and regular administration of their laws than they had enjoyed under their late king Herod, and that their magistrates would be less obstructed in the execution of them than they were under him. For although you see nothing appears in their peti

8 Και προηγουμένως μεν έκαστος αυτονομίας επεθύμει, στρατηγό Ρωμαίων διοικουμένης" ει δε τούτου διαμαρτάνοιεν, βασιλεύειν 'Αντίπαν ήθελον. De Bell. Jud. I. 2. c. 2. §. 3, fin.

Η Επιτρέψαντος Ουάρου, πρέσβεις εξεληλύθησαν ΠΕΡΙ ΤΟ ΤΟΥ ΕΘΝΟΥΣ ΑΥΤΟΝΟΜΙΑΣ. Ησαν δε πεντήκοντα μεν οι παρόντες.

Συμπαρίσταντο δε αυτούς των επι Ρώμης Ιουδαίων υπέρ οκτακισχιλίους -μετά μεν των πρεσβευτών το Ιουδαϊκόν πλήθος έστη. Ιbid. c. 6. 9. 1, pr.

k Δείσθαι δε “Ρωμαίων ελεήσαί τε τα της Ιουδαίας λείψανα-συνάψαντας δε τη Συρία την χώραν αυτών διοικείν υπό ιδίοις ηγεμόσιν. Ιbid. και. 2. p. 1057. I. 5, &c.

tion to Augustus, but that they might be joined to the province of Syria, yet the reason of this request, we are expressly told by Josephus, was their desire of liberty, that they might have a more free use of their laws than they were lately permitted. It was this desire made the family of Herod take part with Antipas (who had the weaker claim) against Archelaus, hoping hereby to prevail, that both might at length be set aside. It was this desire made the nation of the Jews apply to Varus for his consent to their despatching an embassy to Rome. It was this desire made them send so great a number of ambassadors. To use their endeavours to obtain this desired liberty were the instructions given to this numerous body. It was this desire also made the Jews at Rome join with them, and fill up their train. Nothing therefore can be more plain, than that they expected to have a more free exercise of their own laws under a Roman governor than they had under Herod : and had not their magistrates in the reign of Herod the power of inflicting corporal punishments and death in the execution of the Mosaic laws? I am persuaded no one ever doubted it. Most certainly, then, the Jews did not in the least suspect that they should be deprived of this power under a Roman governor; but, on the contrary, believed that they should enjoy the exercise of it in a more full and ample manner than they had done under Herod. Had they known that they were to have entirely lost it by receiving a Roman governor, they would have chosen rather to have suffered any hardships under a king of their own. Every one knows how fond persons usually are of ancient customs and laws. It is certain that no people upon the face of the earth ever were more so than the Jews, who have always shewn a steady, constant, and, I may add, most obstinate adherence to their own customs ', from which no sufferings could ever make them swerve. Besides, with what propriety or truth could it be said that it was the desire of living after their own laws which induced them to petition for a Roman governor, if they knew at the same time, that, by obtaining what they asked, they should have less the exercise of their own laws than they had before?


The reasons we have to believe that the emperor Augustus granted to the Jews what they had in view in this petition.

FOURTHLY, there are many reasons to persuade us that the emperor Augustus did comply with the intent of the petition we have mentioned, after he banished Archelaus : and although he appointed a governor, and


power over all m, yet at the same time allowed the Jews the liberty of their own laws, in the execution of which their magistrates might inflict corporal punishments, and death itself. For,

First, It is evident the emperor Augustus was

1 "Ήδει γαρ ανθ' ενός θανάτου μυρίους άν, είπερ δυνατόν ήν, εθελήσοντας υπομείναι μάλλον, ή περιιδείν τι τών άπειρημένων δρώμενον. "Απαντες γάρ άνθρωποι φυλακτικοί των ιδίων εθών εισι, διαψερόντως δε το Ιουδαίον έθνος. Θεόχρηστα γάρ λόγια τους νόμους είναι υπολαμβάνοντες, και τούτο εκ πρώτης ηλικίας το μάθημα παιδευθέντες, εν ταϊς ψυχαίς, &c. Philo Leg. ad Caium, p. 1099, C. l. 9.

τη Κωπώνιός τε αυτό συγκαταπέμπεται-ήγησόμενος Ιουδαίων τη επί Frãow é covoia. Jos. Antiq. I. 18. c. 1. §.1.

ready enough to grant people the liberty of living under their own magistrates and their own laws. He continued this privilege to most of those places which enjoyed it before his time "; and he gave it to many who before were without ito, particularly in Gaul P, Spain 9, Crete ", if not also in Germany s.

2dly, The great kindness which upon all other occasions he discovered to the Jewish nation, renders it highly probable that he would not deny them this request. I have already shewn from several decrees of his, and of his favourite minister Agrippa, how willing he was to confirm their immunities and privileges; what care he took their sacred money should be secure, and conveyed to Jerusalem without

η "Ηδεισαν αυτού την επιμέλειαν, και ότι τοσαύτην ποιείται της βεβαιώσεως των παρ' εκάστους πατρίων, όσην και των Ρωμαϊκών. Ρhilo Leg. ad Caium, p. 1ο14, Β. 1. 5. Τα δε, ει και τότε ήδη εκεχείρωτο, αλλ' ούτοιγε και υπό των Ρωμαίων ήρχητο, αλλ' ή αυτόνομα αφεΐτο, ή και βασιλείαις τισιν επιτετραπτο. Dio, 1. 53. p. 504, Β. 1. 3. Ο δε δή Αύγουστος το μεν υπήκοον κατά τα των Ρωμαίων έθη διώκει, το δε ένσπονδον τα πατρίδα σφίσι τρόπω αεί άρχεσθαι. L. 54. p. 526, C.

ο Ούτος και τας πόλεις απάσας εις ελευθερίαν εξελόμενος. Philo Leg. ad Caium, p. 1013, C.

Ρ Ο γούν Αύγουστος επειδήπερ πάντα τά τε εν ταϊς Γαλατίαις, και τα εν ταϊς Γερμανίαις, ταϊς τ' 'Ιβηρίαις, πολλά μέν αναλώσας ως εκάστοις, πολλά δε και παρ' ετέρων λαβών, την τ' ελευθερίας και την πολιτείαν τοϊς μεν δούς, τοϊς δ' αφελόμενος, διοικήσατο. Dio, 1. 54. p. 538, fin. The great Spanheim conjectures that the 'Nervii, Suessiones, Ulnanctes, Leuci, Treveri, mentioned by Pliny as free, 1. 4. 5. 31. and Secusiani, $. 32. had their liberty given them by Augustus. Vid. Orb. Rom. p. 351.

4 Oppida libertate donata sex. Plin. I. 3. 5. 3. This, Spanheim conjectures, was done by Augustus. Vid. ibid.

τ Κυδωνεάτας τε και Λαππαίους ελευθέρους αφήκεν. Dio, 1. 51. p.

443, D.

• Dio, 1. 54. p. 538, fin.

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