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allowed to meet to pay their first-fruits, and to send them together with whatever money they pleased to Jerusalem for offerings ', and to appoint proper offi

Jews at Rome had synagogues, and that they met together in them, especially on the holy seventh days, when they publicly taught their own country philosophy. He did not innovate in their synagogues, nor forbid them to meet together for the exposition of their laws. Leg. ad Caium, p. 1014, D. E. And they enjoyed the same privileges under Tiberius. Ibid. p. 1015, B. This is also in great measure evident from the Roman authors. Jejunia sabbatariorum. Mart. I. 4, 4. In qua te quæro proseucha. Juv. Hodie tricesima sabbatha ; vin' tu Curtis Judæis oppedere? Hor. Sat. I. 1. 9. Ne Judæus quidem, mi Tiberi, tam diligenter sabbathis jejunium servat, quam ego hodie servavi. Aug. in Suet. c. 76. n. 3.

P Philo in Leg. ad Caium, p. 1014, D. E. p. 1033, A. Auguslus hearing that the first-fruits were neglected, wrote to the governors of the provinces in Asia, to permit the Jews only to assemble for banqueting. For that these were not assemblies of drunkenness and debauchery, (alluding plainly to the blaou forbidden in the decree of Caius Cæsar before recited,) to cause riots and disturbance, but were schools of sobriety and righteousness, of men studying virtue, and bringing in their yearly first-fruits, of which they offer sacrifices, sending holy messengers to the temple at Jerusalem. Then he commanded that none should hinder the Jews from assembling, contributing their money, or sending to Jerusalem after their country manner. Then follows a letter of Norbanus, containing an epistle of Augustus to him : “ That “ the Jews, wherever they are, should, according to their ancient “ custom, meet together, bring in their money, and send it to “ Jerusalem.” Ibid. p. 1035, D. E. 1036, A. B. We have the letter of Augustus Cæsar to Norbanus in Jos. Antiq. I. 16. c. 6.

“ The Jews, wherever they are, by an ancient custom, are “ wont to bring their money together, and to send it to Jerusa“ lem : let them do this without hinderance." Iu

consequence hereof Norbanus wrote to the Sardians, Jos. ibid. §. 6. and Ephesians, Philo Leg. ad Caium, p. 1036, A. and probably to all the other cities and states under his government. Agrippa wrote to the Ephesians, that whoever should steal the sacred money of

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cers to carry it 4. They were suffered also to determine all disputes and controversies among themselves in a judicial way". They were not only thus

the Jews, and fly to an asylum, should be taken from thence and delivered to the Jews, (in order to be prosecuted and punished,) in the same manner as sacrilegious persons were to be dragged from all asylums. Jos. Antiq. 1. 16. c. 6. §. 4. He sent also to the magistrates of Cyrene, putting them in mind that Augustus had wrote to Flavius the prætor of Libya, and to others, who had the care of that province, that the Jews might send their sacred money to Jerusalem without let or hinderance, commanding the Cyrenians to restore what had been stopped or taken away

from the Jews under pretence of tribute, and to prevent the like hinderance for the future. Ibid. §. 5. Augustus decreed that the stealing of their sacred books or their sacred money, out of the places in which they were wont to be reposited in their synagogues, should be sacrilege, and the punishment confiscation of goods. Ibid. §. 2. Vid. et de Bell. Jud. 1. 6. c. 6. §. 2. p. 1284, fin.

Η Στέλλοντες ιεροπομπούς εις το εν Ιεροσολύμοις ιερόν. Phil. Leg. ad Caium, p. 1035, fin. Toùs eis taūta á Tokek pujévous. Jos. Antiq. 1. 16. c. 6. §. 5, fin.

It is a most remarkable letter sent by Lucius Antonius, proquæstor and pro-prætor, to the magistrates, senate, and people of Sardis : “ The Jews, our citizens, (i. e. citizens of Rome,) came “ to me, and made proof that they have had of ancient time a “synod of their own, according to their own country laws, and a “place of their own, in which they judicially determine causes “ and disputes between each other. Having petitioned me that “ it may be lawful for them to do this, I have decreed to permit “ them.” Jos. Antiq. 1. 14. C. 10. §. 17. Ιουδαίοι πολίται ημέτεροι προσελθόντες μου επέδειξαν εαυτούς σύνοδον έχειν ιδίαν κατά τους πατρίους νόμους απ' αρχής, και τόπον ίδιον, εν ώ τά τε πράγματα και τας προς αλλήλους αντιλογίας κρίνoυσι. Τούτο τε αίτησαμένοις, ίν' έξη αυτούς ποιείν, την pau kai étitpéta expiva. Though this was a free city, yet the persons who applied themselves to the pro-prætor, being Roman citizens, were under his jurisdiction ; notwithstanding, being Jews as well as Romans, he allows them to determine their own controversies among themselves by their own laws.

indulged in the use of their own customs and laws, but, what is much more, if any laws of the country where they inhabited interfered with their customs they were dispensed with, and not obliged to comply with those laws. Thus, for instance, they were dispensed with in not attending courts of judicature or giving bail on their sabbaths or feast-days s. They were exempted from serving in the Roman army ,

s The Jews of lonia complain to Agrippa, that by the injustice of the magistrates they were forced into their judicial courts on their feast-days, and made to serve both in the army and in civil employments, contrary to the privileges granted them by the Romans, and Agrippa relieved them. Jos. Antiq. I. 16. c. 2. §. 3, 4, 5. And upon complaint made by the Jews of Asia and Libya, Augustus decreed that they should not be obliged to give in bail on the sabbath-days, or on the preparation before the sabbath from the ninth hour, i.e. on Friday, after three of the clock in the afternoon. Ibid. c. 6. §. 1, 2. And Agrippa wrote to Silanus, prætor of Asia, to the same purpose, §. 4. fin. "Eypala dè kai Einavộ tố στρατηγώ, ίνα σάββασι μηδείς αναγκάζη Ιουδαίον εγγύας ομολογείν.

+ Dolabella, president of Asia, having received an embassy from Hyrcanus, informing him that the Jews were incapable of being soldiers in the Roman army, because they could not bear arms, nor march, nor provide their own victuals on the sabbath-days; writes to the Ephesians, and by them to all the cities of Asia, granting to the Jews (as he says the governors before him had done) a freedom from serving in the army, and the use of their own customs, to assemble for the performance of their sacred rites, and to make contributions for their sacrifices. Jos. Antiq. 1. 14. C. 10. §. 12. Lucius Lentulus the consul pronounces a decree, whereby he dismisses the Jews at Ephesus, who were Roman citizens, from the military service, upon the account of religion. Ibid. §. 13. Being Roman citizens, they were liable by the Roman law to have been enlisted, had it not been for this immunity or exemption. Vid. etg. 16, 18, 19. Therefore Marcus Piso, when he came to Delos to enlist soldiers, commanded the prætor and people of that city, that if there were any Jews among them, who were Roman citizens, they should not trouble them by enand from all those civil offices which were inconsistent with their religion ; as appears by the decrees of Augustus, Agrippa, and several Roman governors to this purpose ". So that Seneca affirms of them, that they gave law to their conquerors ".

And it is not a little remarkable how very condescending and kind the emperor Augustus was to this people. For in his monthly distributions of money and corn to the people of Rome, as he gave to the Jews equal to what he did to the rest, so if it happened that the distribution was made on their sabbath-day, when they think it unlawful to receive money, he, knowing their scruple, ordered it to be

listing them, because the consul Cornelius Lentulus bad freed the Jews from serving in the army upon the account of their religion. And the Delians made a decree that this order should be observed. The Sardians made a decree to the same effect. Ibid. $. 14.

και Λειτουργιών αναγκαζόμενοι κοινωνείν, Jos. Αntig. 1. 16. c. 2. 5. 3. med. Και ταϊς εορταϊς άγοντες επί δικαστήρια, και πραγματείας άλλας, ibid. §. 4. p.711, pr. Though these laws were broke in upon by Caligula, they were confirmed by Claudius, Jos. Antiq. I. 19. c. 5. §. 2, 3. who commanded the magistrates of all cities, colonies, and municipia, both within Italy and without, as also all kings and potentates, to procure a copy of his decree, made in favour of the Jews, and to expose it where it might be read by all. Vid. et c. 6. §. 3. And were preserved by the succeeding emperors, as is evident from the speech made by Titus. De Bell. Jud. I. 6.c. 6. §. 2. p. 1284, fin.

* Cum interim usque eo sceleratissimæ gentis consuetudo convaluit, ut per omnes jam terras recepta sit : victi victoribus leges dederunt. Apud Aug. de Civ. Dei 1. 6. c. 11.

And Dio says they prevailed; "Ώστε και παρρησίαν (vel είς παρρησίαν) της νομίσεως čky. ous. L. 36. p. 37, B. Vid. Seld. de Success. in bon. Prol.


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laid up in safe custody for them till the next day y. Is it reasonable to think that a people so peculiarly favoured in all parts of the Roman empire out of their own country, should not in their country be governed by their own laws and their own magistrates, a privilege so commonly granted by the Romans, as we have seen, to other countries ?

SECT. VII. The Jews petitioned the emperor Augustus that their coun

try might be made a Roman province, with this view, that they might have the free use of their own laws.

THIRDLY, it is also fully evident from Josephus, that it was the earnest desire of the Jews that they might be no longer under a king of their own, but under a Roman governor ; and that the true reason why they so earnestly sought to have their country annexed to the province of Syria was, that they might have the free use of their own laws. When Archelaus went to Rome to obtain of Augustus the confirmation of his father's will, even his relations and friends joined themselves to his brother and competitor Antipas, (who had been named by his father Herod in a former will as the person he designed should succeed him in his kingdom,) not out of good-will to Antipas, but out of hatred to Arche

Υ Ου μην αλλά καν ταϊς μηνιαίοις της πατρίδος διανομαΐς, αργύριον ή στον εν μέρει παντός του δήμου λαμβάνοντος, ουδέποτε τους Ιουδαίους ηλάττωσε της χάριτος, αλλ' ει και συνέβη της ιεράς εβδόμης ενεστώσης γενέσθαι την διανομήν, ότε ούτε λαμβάνειν ούτε διδόναι, ή συνόλως τι πράττειν τών κατά βίον, και μάλιστα τον ποριστην εφεϊται, προσετέτακτο τους διανέμουσι ταμιεύειν τους Ιουδαίοις εις την υστεραίαν την κοινήν φιλανθρωπίαν. Phil. Leg. ad Caium, p. 1015, , A.

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