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that all causes which concerned the revenue were under the cognisance of the president of the province d; and I think also the inspection and examination of the accounts e: that in all places whatsoever Roman citizens were to be judged by the Roman laws, and were under the jurisdiction of the Roman governorf; and probably there was not a
d Quantum vero illud est beneficium tuum, quod iniquo et gravi vectigali ædilitiorum, magnis nostris simultatibus, Asiam liberasti ? &c. Hic ita te versari, ut et publicanis satisfacias, (præsertim publicis male redemptis,) et socios perire non sinas, divinæ cujusdam virtutis esse videtur, i. e. tuæ, &c. &c. Cic. ad Quint. Frat. I. 1. ep. I. c. 9, pr. c. 11, med. Duobus generibus edicendum putavi : quorum unum est provinciale, in quo est de rationibus civitatum, de ære alieno, de usura, de syngraphis; in eodem omnia de publicanis. Ad Attic. 1. 6. ep. 1. p.909, pr. Mira erant in civitatibus ipsorum furta Græcorum, quæ magistratus sui fecerant. Quæsivi ipse de iis, qui annis decem proximis magistratum gesserant: aperte fatebantur, &c. Ad Att. 1. 6. ep. 2. p.911, a. med. Leg. 1. C. de Off. Præf. August. Vid. Voet. in Pand. tit. de Off. Proc. Cæs. I. 11. ff. de Off. Præs. l. 6. §. 3, fin. eod. 1. 9, pr. ff. de Off. Proc. et 1. 2. C. ubi causæ fiscales.
e At least Philo tells us this was the business of the governors of Egypt, 'Aλλά και λογισμούς των προσόδων και δασμών λαμβάνοντας, ών η εξέτασις τον πλείονα του ενιαυτού χρόνον ανήλισκεν. In Flac. p.984, C.
Thus in Sicily, Cic. in Ver. 1. 2. c. 13. and in Cyprus, ad Attic. I. 5. ep. ult. p. 906, pr. and the cities of Asia, Quid tibi tandem, Deciane, injuriæ factum est ? Negotiaris in libera civitate.
-Verum esto : negotiari libet : cur non Pergamis ? Smyrnæ ? Trallibus ? Ubi et multi cives Romani sunt et jus a nostro magistratu dicitur. Pro Flacco, c. 29. p. 493, pr. That Smyrna was a free city, governed by their own laws, vid. Polyb. Excerp. Leg. 25. p. 821, fin. Liv. I. 38. c. 39. And Tully makes mention of them as fidelissimorum antiquissimorumque sociorum, Phil. 11. C. 2. p. 963, a. The inhabitants of Pergamus and Tralles were guilty of the basest treachery in the Mithridatic war; concerning which see Cic. pro Flacco, c. 24. p. 492, pr. et Appian. Bell. Mithrid. p. 185, C. et E. Yet it is the opinion of the great Span
town of consideration in any province in which there were not many Roman citizens. The military forces also in every province were under the command of the president K. When these things are laid together and considered, there is no one but must see that a Roman governor had full business upon his hands without interfering with the free states under him, and breaking in upon their liberty. Philo says that the governors of Egypt were so overwhelmed with multiplicity of business, that suitors in their court were no small sufferers h.
It must be acknowledged that the liberty of all places was a precarious thing, depending wholly on the pleasure of the Roman people i or emperors, who granted it, and took it away as they saw fitting; so that we often read of many changes made in the condition of one and the same district or city, which was this while free, using their own laws, another while not so; then free again, and afterwards again
heim from several passages of Tully, Dio, and Plutarch, that they had their liberty restored either by Lucullus or Pompey. Vid. Orb. Rom. p. 292.
Add to this what has been already said in the notes concerning the Lycians, Rhodians, and Cyziceni.
& Veteres Romani-majoribus in provinciis magistratibus missis armorum juxta et legum potestatem fecissent-permissa scilicet prætoribus tam rei bellicæ administratione quam legum præscriptione. Nov. 24. præt. Ut idem et militaribus copiis, quæ per provinciam sunt, secundum cognomentum antiquitus illis impositum præeat, et præficiatur legibus. Ibid. c. 1.
h 'Αμήχανον μέν γάρ ήν τους ηγεμόνας τοσαύσης χώρας επιτροπεύοντας, δια καινοτέρων επεισρεόντων ιδιωτικών τε και δημοσίων πραγμάτων απάντων meurño bas, &c. Vid. et præcedentia. In Flac. p. 984, C.
i De jure enim libertatis et civitatis suum putat esse judicium, (i. e. populus Romanus) et recte putat. Cic. in Ver. I. 1. c. 5. (13, pr.)
reduced under obedience to the Roman laws k. And as the greatest part of these free states paid tribute, they were generally so harassed and oppressed by the publicans, or farmers of the public taxes, that their liberty was of small advantage! The gover
k Thus the Greek cities in Europe, we have observed, were proclaimed free after the war with Philip king of Macedonia, Liv. 1. 33. c. 32. This freedom, after the battle of Actium, was taken away from all the cities of Achaia, excepting Patræ, by Augustus. Pausan. Achai. p. 224. 1. 18. Kai čowke Mè hevb épous 'Αχαιών μόνοις τοις Πατρεύσιν είναι. Dio, 1. 51. p. 443, Β. 9. Και ός τας μεν πόλεις χρημάτων τε εισπράξει, και της λοιπής ές τους πολίτας σφών εν ταϊς εκκλησίαις εξουσίας παραιρέσει, μετήλθε. Achaia was proclaimed free again by Nero at the Isthmian games. Suet. in Ner. c. 24. n. 6. Decedens, provinciam universam libertate donavit. Quæ beneficia e medio stadio Isthmiorum die sua ipse voce propunciavit. Vid. Plut. Flamin. p. 376, C. Their liberty was soon after taken away again by Vespasian. Achaiam- libertate adempta. Suet. in Vesp. c. 8. n. 9. Pausan. Achai. p. 222. 1. 25. Many of their cities or states were free again under Trajan. Plin. I. 8. ep.
Cogita te missum in provinciam Achaiam-ad ordinandum statum liberarum civitatum. -Te vero meminisse oportet, quale quantumque sit ordinare statum liberarum civitatum. Nam quid ordinatione civilius ? Quid libertate pretiosius ? Porro quam turpe, si ordinatio eversione, libertas servitute mutetur? The Rhodians were great favourites in the war with Antiochus, Liv. I. 38. c. 39.; were quite out of favour in the war with Perseus, Liv. I. 44. c. 14, 15. and l. 45. C. 25.; afterwards upon great entreaties restored to friendship, Epit. 46. Their liberty was taken away by Claudius, and restored again at the intercession of Nero by the same emperor, Dio, 1. 60. p. 681, B. Tacit. Ann. I. 12. c. 58. n. 3.; taken away again by Vespasian, Sex. Rufus in Breviario, c. 10, fin. Suet. in Vesp. c. 8. n.9. They were free again under Trajan. Dio Chrys. Orat. 32. p. 377, C.
Illa causa publicanorum quantam acerbitatem afferat sociis, intelleximus ex civibus, qui nuper in portoriis Italiæ tollendis, non tam de portorio, quam de nonnullis injuriis portitorum querebantur. Quare non ignoro, quid sociis accidat in ultimis terris, cum nors also who were sent among them, as we have already observed, allowed them no more liberty than they saw fit, and often treated them more like slaves than freemen m. These things however make it not at all the less true, that there were very many places under the Romans to whom the supreme ruling powers, whether it were the senate, the people, or the emperor, granted the privilege of being governed by their own laws and their own magistrates.
The Romans were peculiarly favourable to the Jews, and
allowed them singular privileges in all parts of the empire.
SECONDLY, it is also certain that the Jews were indulged the peculiar favour of being in a great measure under their own laws, even out of Judæa, in all parts of the Roman empire, wheresoever they dwelt ". They were permitted to build synagogues, assemble
audierim in Italia querelas civium. Hic te ita versari, ut et publicanis satisfacias-et socios perire non sinas, divinæ cujusdam virtutis esse videtur. Cic. ad Quint. Frat. 1. 1. ep. I. C. 11. The senate of Rome themselves say, Et ubi publicanus est, ibi aut jus publicum vanum, aut libertatem sociis nullam esse. Liv. I. 45. C. 18, med.
m Some of these considerations probably made Tully smile, when he wrote to his friend Atticus concerning the liberty of the Greek cities : Sibi libertatem censent Græci datam, ut Græci inter se disceptent suis legibus—Græci vero exultant, quod peregrinis judicibus utuntur, nugatoribus quidem, inquies. Quid refert? tamen se aitovouíay adeptos putant. Vestri enim, credo, graves habent, Turpionem sutorium, et Vettium mancipem. Ad Att. I. 6. ep. 1. p. 909, a, fin.
" Nullo adeo in ævo fere non erat hoc nationi huic singulare suis fere legibus alieno in regno seu republica uti. Seld. de Success. in bon. Prol. p. 10.
together on Saturdays and holydays to hear their law explained, keep their festivals, and perform whatever rites were prescribed them. They were
• The Halicarnasseans, in imitation of the Romans, and in obedience to what they had wrote to them, decree that the Jews, both men and women, keep their sabbaths and perform their holy rites according to their own laws, και τας προσευχές ποιείσθαι, and build Proseuchæ, or say their prayers near the sea, according to their own country manner, and that whoever should hinder them, whether magistrate or private person, should be fined. Jos. Antiq. 1. 14. C. 10. §. 23. The senate and people of Sardis agree to the petition of the Jews, that they may have a place given them, in which they may assemble with their wives and children, to perform their prayers, and other holy rites, to God, and decree that it may be lawful for them to meet together upon the appointed days, to do according to their own laws. Ibid. §. 24. There is a decree of the Ephesians to the same purpose, §. 25. and both these decrees were made in obedience to the Romans. Publius Servilius Galba the proconsul is displeased with the Milesiaus for prohibiting the Jews to observe their sabbaths and other holy rites, and decrees that the Jews should not be hindered in the use of their own customs. Ibid. §. 21. There is a decree of a Roman prætor directed to the magistrates of Parium, (a city of Mysia near the Propontis. The prætor being now at Delos, probably misled the learned Hudson to translate it Pariorum, which signifies the inhabitants of the island of Parus, whenas Tlapávw are the inhabitants of Parium, vid. Strab.) wherein the prætor shews his displeasure, that they had by their decree forbad the Jews to live according to their own customs, and to contribute
money for their feasts and other holy rites, when they were not prohibited the doing this even at Rome. For, adds the prætor, Caius Cæsar, our prætor and consul, when by an edict he forbad, Oráo cus συνάγεσθαι κατά πόλιν, μόνους τούτους ουκ εκώλυσεν, ούτε χρήματα συνεισφέρειν, ούτε σύνδειπνα ποιείν, all other merry and festival meetings, he forbad not the Jews to collect money, and feast together. In like manner I also, forbidding all other festival assemblies, permit to this people only to meet together, and feast according to their country customs and laws, (istaobar undoubtedly ought to be read értığodas.) ibid. §. 8. Philo says, that Augustus knew that the