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will never see death swallowed up in victory ; but the fece ond death will swallow them up in victory.
This notion that there is life in the soul of the wicked, or a principle that cannot die, was taken from the platonic philofophers, and was introduced as scripture doctrine in the third century, and is exactly contrary to what Christ preached.
Dr. Mosheim says, vol. I. p. 267, “ Its first promoters proceeded from that known doctrine of the Platonic Ichool, which also was adopted by Origen, and his difci, ples, viz. that the divine nature was diffused through all buman souls, or in other words, that the faculty of reason, from which proceeds the health and vigor of the mind, was an ein. anation from God into the human soul, and comprehended in it the principles and elements of all truth, human and divine.' Here is the very doctrine now believed as truth. This originated from that philofophy which was in fashion in the days of Christ and the apostles; of which Paul says, Col. ii. 8, “ Beware left any man spoil you through PhlLOSOPHY and vain deceit, after the traditions of men, after the rudiments of the world, and not after Christ.”
This doctrine, that the foul is immortal, a part of God, and cannot die, is exactly opposite to what Christ and the apostles preached. John vi. 53, “ Then Jesus said unto them, verily, verily, I say unto you, except ye eat the flesh of the Son of Man, and drink his blood, ye have no LIFE in you.” In this verse Jesus has faid, with a verily, verily, that those who do not eat his flesh and drink his : blood, have no life in them. Verse 58, “He that eateth of this bread shall live forever.” This eating his flela. means believing on him. See verse 40,5" And this is the will of him that sent me, that every one which seeth the Son, and believeth on him, may have everlasting life ; and I will raise him up at the last day.” Verse 47, 50, si; “ Verily, verily, I say unto you, he that believeth on me hath everlasting life. This is the bread which cometh down from heaven, that a man may eat thereof, and not die. I am the living bread which came down from heaven ; if any man eat of this bread he shall live forever; and the bread that I will give is my flesh, which
. I will give for the life of the world.” What can be plainer than this ? Christ says those who do not eat his flesh, that is, believe his words, have no life in them ; he that eateth his flesh shall never die, hath eternal life, &c. I know not how to prove that there is a principle of e. ternal life in an unbeliever, when Christ says they have no life in them; unless I prove it from philosophy. This, that the unbeliever has no life in him, is declared by the fervants of Christ. John fays, iii. 36, • He that believe eth on the Son hath everlasting life ; and he that believe eth not the Son shall not see life ; but the wrath of God abideth on him." If a person exists he must have life, though he may be destitute of happiness ; ' but this place says he shall not fee life.
i John, v. 11, 12, “And this is the record, that God hath given to us eternal life ; and this life is in his Son. He that hath the Son hath life ; and he that hath not the Son of God, hath not life." Every believer has life in himself; that life is Christ ; Gal. ii. 20, “ I am crucified with Christ : nevertheless I live ; yet not I, but Christ liveth in me: and the life which I now live in the flet, I live by the faith of the Son of God, who loved me, and gave himself for me." All the life an unbeliever has is in God, “Who giveth to all life and being." When God ceaseth to give them life, they must die. Jesus Christ has not only declared that the unbeliever has no life in him; but he has told us of the destruction of the foul and body in hell. Matth. x. 28, “ And fear not them which kill the body, but are not able to kill the foul : but rather fear him which is able to destroy both foul and body in hell.” Here the death of the foul is mentioned, as well as the death of the body. Some may say that though God is able to kill the foul ; yet that is not a proof that he will. The scripture declares die death of the soul. Ezekiel xviii. 4, “Behold, all fouls are mine ; as the soul of the father fo also the soul of the son is mine : the soul that sinneth, it shall die.'' Ver. 20, “ The foul that sinneth, it shall die.” Prov. viii. 36, “ But he that sinneth against me wrongeth his own soul : all they that hate me love DEATH.” This .
means the death of the soul as well as the body. Jesus speaks upon this same subject, in Matt. xvi. 25, 26, 27, “ For whosoever will save his life shall lose it ; and who. fuever will lose his life for my fake, shall find it : For, what is a man profited, if he shall gain the whole world, and lose his own foul ? Or, what shall a man give in ex. change for his soul? For the Son of Man fhall come in the glory of his Father, with his angels; and then shall he reward every man according to his works.” It is plain that this account of losing the foul refers to something which is to take place at the day of judgment. :
Having proved from the New Testament that there is Do eternal life in the soul nor body of an unbeliever;, I now proceed to a further description of that DEATH, which is the wages of fin.
Paul says, Rom. vi. 23," For the wages of fin is death : but the gift of God is eternal life, through Jesus Christ our Lord.” In this verse eternal life is set in opposition to death. This death means what is called in another place, the SECOND DEATH." The first life is temporal; in this, all men share. The first death is temporal ; in this all men will share, except those who are translated, and those who will be alive when Christ comes the second time. The second death is without end ; the soul and body will die to live no more. The second life is without end, the soul and body of the believer will live to die no more. None will share in the SECOND DEATH, but un. believers : none will share in the second life, but believers in Chrift. The wicked are faid in the New Teltament to be dead ; the meaning is that they are under the sentence of death for unbelief ; or for disobeying the voice of God, which is heard in all nations, either in his works or word, or both. The words DEATH and condem. nation mean the same thing. Christ says, John v. 24, “ Verily, verily, I say unto you, he that heareth my word, and believeth on him that sent me, hath everlasting life, and shall not come into condemnation ; but is passed from death unto life.” Condemnation means declaring a person guilty ; lo does death. Every unbeliever is in a ftate of death, or condemnation, because he hath not be.
Tieved in the name of the only begotten Son of God, and not because Adam finned, or because he does not keep the law; but because he has not believed the gospel. Every condemned perfon is considered a dead man, be. cause he must die if justice takes place. The SECOND DEATH, which is the wages of fin, will not take place till after the resurrection; the sentence against an evil work will then be executed. Men are considered as dead men in the scriptures, when they do that which expofes them to death. The Lord once said to Abimelech, “ Behold,
thou art but a dead man." Gen. xx. 3. Exod. xii. 33, ; “ And the Egyptians were urgent upon the people, that
they might fend them out of the land in haste; for they said, we be all DEAD MEN." It is plain that they meant their situation was such that they must experience cer
tain death, unless something was done to prevent it. · This is what the scriptures mean by calling unbelievers · dead in trespasses and fins. They are in such a state of
condemnation for their own fins, that unless they are for-' given, they must certainly experience the end of their wickedness, which will be the death of the foul and body.' Paul says, Rom. vi. 21, “ What fruit had ye in those things whereof ye are now ashamed? for the end of those ..things is death." : I shall now mention the places which speak of the
SECOND DEATH, and the character of those who will share in it. As this is the last thing the wicked will have, it is mentioned in the last part of the Bible. The first time the term “ SECOND DEATH" is mentioned, is in Rev. ii. HT, “He that overcometh shall not be hurt of the secOND DEATH." Rev. xx. 6. "Blessed and holy is he that hath part in the first resurrection : on fuch the SECOND
DEATH hath no power." Chap. xx. 14. ^ And death . and hell were całt into the lake of fire: This is the sec
OND DEATH." Chap xxi. 8, “ But the fearful and unbe. lieving, and the abominable, and murderers, and whoremongers, and forcerers, and idoláters, and all liars, shall have their part in the lake which burneth with fire and. brimitone; which is the SECOND DEATH." These are all
the places I can find, where the expression secOND DEATH is mentioned..
A few words on those places must suffice.
1. The time when this second death will take place. This will be immediately after the wicked are raised out of their graves and judged according to their works. John says, Rev. xx. 12, 13, 14, 15, “ And I saw the dead small and great stand before God; and the books were opened, and another book was opened, which is the book of life ; and the dead were judged out of those things which were written in the books, according to their works. And the sea gave up the dead which were in it, and death and hell gave up the dead which were in them; and they were judged every man according to their works. And death and hell were cast into the lake of fire. This is the second DEATH. And whosoever was not found written in the book of life, was cast into the lake of fire.” This account makes it plain, that the SECOND DEATH will not take place till the people are judged according to their works. The bodies of the wick. ed are confined in their graves, and their spirits in prison, where they are tormented until the great day. There they will have their trial, and then they will be punished with the second DEATH; which will be their end. . 2. What is this second death?
It is a death of soul and body in the lake of fire. 16 And death and hell were cast into the lake of fire.
This is the second death." The first time the wicked died, it was in the air, water, or fire ; but here it is a lake of fire. Will this be real fire ? It will." It will be this earth, which at that day will all be melted with fervent heat. 2 Peter, iii. 7, “But the heavens and earth, which are now by the same word are kept in store, reserved unto fire against the day of judgment and perdition of ungodly men.".
3. Who will share in this second death?
We are told in general, and in particular. In general, whosoever is not found written in the book of life; death and hell were cast into the lake of fire. The particular account of those who shall jhare in the seCOND DEATH is