תמונות בעמוד

of understanding, they are not sensible of their spiritual wants, and of this in particular. But as soon as God opens the eyes of their understanding, they see the state they were in before; they are then deeply convinced, that “every man living," themselves especially, are, by nature, “altogether vanity ;” that is, folly and ignorance, sin and wickedness.

3. We see, when God opens our eyes, that we were before AJEOL EN TW 2054w, without God, or rather, Atheists in the world. We had, by nature, no knowledge of God, no acquaintance with him. It is true, as soon as we came to the use of reason, we learned “the invisible things of God, even bis eternal power and Godhead, from the things that are made." From the things that are seen we inferred the existence of an eternal, powerful Beins, that is not seen. But still, although we acknowledged his being, we had no acquaintance with him. As we know there is an Emperor of China, whom yet we do not know; so we knew there was a King of all the earth, yet we knew liim not. Indeed, we could not, by any of our natural faculties. By none of these could we attain the kuowledge of God. We could no more perceive him by our natural understanding, than we could see him with our eyes. For “no one knoweth the Father but the Son, and he to whom the Son willeth to reveal him. And no one knoweth the Son but the Father, and he to whom the Father revealeth him,"

4. We read of an ancient king, who, being desirous to know what was the natural language of men, in order to bring the matter to a certain issue, made the following experiment: He ordered two infants, as soon as they were born, to be conveyed to a place prepared for them, where they were brought up without any instruction at all, and without ever hearing a human voice. And what was the event? Why, that when they were at length brought out of their confinement, they spake no language at all, they uttered only inarticulate sounds, like those of other animals. W'ere two infants in like manner to be brought up from the womb without being instructed in any religion, there is little room to doubt, but (unless the grace of God interposed) the event would be just the same. They would have no religion at all: they would have no more knowledge of God than the beasts of the field, than the wild ass's colt. Such is Natural Religion, abstracted from Traditional, and from the influences of God's Spirit !

5. And having no kuowledge, ire can have no Love of God: we cannot love Him we knoll not. Most men talk indeed of him. State we


loving God, and perhaps imagine they do; at least few will acknowledge they do not love him : but the fact is too plain to be denied. No man loves God by nature, any more than he does a stone, or the earth he treads upon. What we love we delight in: but no man has naturally any delight in God. In our rratural state we cannot conceive how any one should delight in him. We take no pleasure in him at all; he is utterly tasteless to us. To love God! It is far above, out of our sight. We cannot, naturally, attain unto it.

6. We have, by nature, not only no love, but no Fear of God. It is allowed, indeed, that most men have, sooner or later, a kind of senseless, irrational fear, properly called Superstition, though the blundering Epicureans gave it the name of Religion. Yet even this is not natural, but acquired ; chiefly by conversation or from example. By nature “ God is not in all our thoughts :” we leave him to manage his own affairs, to sit quietly, as we imagine, in heaven, and leave us on earth to manage ours; so that we have no more of the fear of God before our eyes, than of the love of God in our hearts.

7. Thus are all men“ Atheists in the world.” But Atheism itself does not screen us from Idolatry. In his natural state every man born into the world is a rank idolater. Perhaps, indeed, we may not be such in the vulgar sense of the word. We do not, like the idolatrous Heathens, worship molten or graven images. We do not bow down to the stock of a tree, to the work of our own hands. We do not pray to the angels or saints in heaven, any more than to the saints that are upon the earth. But what then? We have set up our idols in our hearts; and to these we bow down, and worship them : we worship ourselves, when we pay that honour to ourselves, which is due to God only. Therefore all pride is idolatry; it is ascribing to ourselves what is due to God alone. And although pride was not made for man, yet where is the man that is born without it? But hereby we rob God of his, unalienable right, and idolatrously usurp his glory.

8. But pride is not the only sort of idolatry which we are all by nature guilty of. Satan has stamped his own image on our heart in Self-will also. “I will,” said he, before he was cast out of heaven, “ I will sit upon the sides of the North; " I will do my own will and pleasure, independently on that of my Creator. The same does every man born into the world say, and that in a thousand instances; nay, and avow it too, without ever blushing upon the account, without either fear or shame. Ask the man, “Ilhy did you do this?' He answers, “Because I had a mind to it.' Illat is this but, “Because it was my will;' that is, in effect, because the Devil and I are agreed; because Satan and I govern our actions by one and the same principle. The will of God, mean time, is not in his thoughts, is not considered in the least degree; although it be the supreme rule of every intelligent creature, whether in heaven or carth, resulting from the essential, unalterable relation, which all creatures bcar to their Creator.

9. So far wc bear the image of the Devil, and tread in his steps. But at the next step we leare Satan behind; we run into an idolatry whereof he is not guilty : I mean, Love of the World ; which is now as natural to crcry man, as to love his own will. What is more natural to us than to seck happiness in the creature, instead of the Creator? To seck that satisfaction in the works of his bands, which can be found in God only? What more natural than “the desire of the flesh ? " That is, of the pleasure of sense in every kind ? Men indeed talk magnificently of despising these low pleasures, particularly men of learning and education. They affect to sit loose to the gratification of those appetites irherein they stand on a level with the beasts that perish. But it is mere affectation ; for every man is conscious to himself, that in this respect he is, by nature, a very beast. Sensual appetites, cren those of the lowest kind, have, more or less, the dominion over him. They lead him captive; they drag him to and fro, in spite of his boasted reason. The man, with all his good breeding and other accomplishments, has no pre-eminence over the goat : nay, it is mucli to bc doubted, whether the bcast has not the pre-eminence over him. Certainly be has, if we may hearken to one of their modern oracles, who very decently tells us,

« Once in a season, beasts too taste of love;

Only the breast of reason is its slave,

And in chat folly diudges all the year.” A considerable difference indeed, it must be allowed, there is between man and man, arising (beside that wrought by preventing grace) from diflerence of constitution and of education. But, notwithstanding this, who, that is not utterly ignorant of himself, can here cast the first stone at another ? Who can abide the test of our blessed Lord's comment on the Seventh Commandment ? “Ile that looketh on a woman to lust after her, hath committed adultery with her already in his heart ?" So that one knows not which to wonder at most, the ignorance

or the insolence of those men, who speak with such disdain of them that are overcome by desires which every man has felt in his own breast; the desire of every pleasure of sense, innocent or not, being natural to cvery child of mari.

10. And so is “the Desire of the Eye ;” the desire of the pleasures of the imagination. These arise either from great, or beautiful, or uncommon objects ;-if the two former do not coincide with the latter; for perhaps it would appear upon a diligent inquiry, that neither grand nor beautiful objects please, any longer than they are new; that when the novelty of them is over, the greatest part, at least, of the pleasure they give, is over ; and in the same proportion as they become familiar, they become flat and insipid. But let us experience this ever so often, the same desire will remain still. The inbred thirst continues fixed in the soul; nay, the more it is indulged, the more it increases, and incites us to follow after another, and yet another object; although we leave every one with an abortive hope, and a deluded expectation. Yea,

“ The hoary fool, who many days

Has struggled with continued sorrow,
Renews his hope, and fondly lays -

The desperate bet upon tomorrow !
Tomorrow comes ! 'Tis noon! 'Tis night!

This day, like all the former, flies:
Yet, on he goes, to seek delight

Toinorrow, till to night he dies !” 11. A third symptom of this fatal disease, the love of the world, which is so deeply rooted in our nature, is “the Pride of Life;” the desire of praise, of the honour that cometh of men. This the greatest admirers of human nature allow to be strictly natural; as natural as the sight, or hearing, or any other of the external senses. And are they ashamed of it, even men of letters, men of refined and improved understanding ? So far from it, that they glory therein ! They applaud themselves for their love of applause! Yea, eminent Christians, so called, make no difficulty of adopting the saying of the old, vain Heatben, “ Animi dissoluti est et nequam negligere quid de se homines sentiant :“Not to regard what men think of us, is the mark of a wicked and abandoned mind.” So that to go calm and unmoved through honour and dishonour, through evil report and good report, is with them a sign of one that is, indeed, not fit to live: “ Away with such a fellow from the earth.” But would one imagine that these men had ever Vol. I. No. 12.


heard of Jesus Christ or his Apostles; or that thies knew wl: it was that said, “How can ye believe who receive honour one of another, and seek not the honour which cometh of God only?” But if this be really so, if it be impossible to believe, and consequently to please God, so long as we receive or seek honour one of another, and scek not the honour which cometh of God only; then in what a condition are all mankind! The Christiaus as well as Heathens! Since they all seek honour one of another! Since it is as natural for them so to do, themselves being the judges, its it is to see the light which strikes upon their eye, or to hear the sound wbich enters their ear; yea, since they account it a sign of a virtuous mind, to seek the praise of men, and of a vicious one, to be content with the bonour that cometh of God only!

III. 1. I proceed to draw a few Iuferences from what has been said. And first, from bence we may lears one grand fundamental difference betireen Christianity, considered as a system of doctrines, and the most refined Heathenism. Many of the ancient Ileatheus hare largely described the vices of particular mon. They have spoken much against their covetousness, or cruelty ; their luxury, or prodigality. Some have dared to say, that “no man is born without vices of oue kind or another." But still, as pone of them were apprised of the fall of man, so none of them knew of his total corruption. They knew not thai all men were empty of all good, and filled with all manner of evil. They were wholly ignorant of the entire depravation of the whole buman nature', of every man born into the world, in every faculty of his soul, not so much by those particular vices which reign in particular persons, as by the general flood of atheism and idolatry, of pride, self-will, and love of the world. This, therefore, is the first, grand, distinguishing point between Heatheuism and Christianity. The one acknowledges that many men are infected with many vices, and even born with a proneness to them; but supposes withal, that in some the natural good much over-balances the evil: the other declares that all men are “conceived in sin,” and “ shapen in wickedness;”--that hence there is in every man a "carnal mind, wliichi is enmity against God, which is mot, cannot be subject to his] lai”;” and which so infects the whole soul, that “there durelieth in [bim,] in his flesli,” in bis natural state, “no good thing ;” but “every imagination of the thoughts aof his heart is evil," only evil, and that “continually.”

2. Ilonec we may, secondly, lears, that all who deny tbis,

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